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Johanna Belz, Jens Kleinert, Jeannine Ohlert, Thea Rau and Marc Allroggen

for the absence of subjective psychological well-being, using the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5; World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1998 ), for example, which is another self-report symptom scale. Prevalence rates of 11.6% ( Kleinert, Sulprizio, & Anderten, 2016 ) and 15% have

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Hisao Osada, Hiroshi Shibata, Shuichiro Watanabe, Shu Kumagai and Takao Suzuki

This study examined cross-sectional relationships and longitudinal changes in psychological well-being and selected physical conditions in urban and rural older adults. A 2-year longitudinal analysis was conducted as part of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology—Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging in 1993 and 1995 in the urban area and in 1994 and 1996 in the rural area. The participants were 285 men and 341 women in the urban area and 301 men and 427 women in the rural area. Visual capacity and chewing ability were independent predictors of psychological well-being in urban elderly in the 1st survey and in the rural elderly in both surveys, and hearing capacity and movement capability were independent predictors of psychological well-being in urban elderly in the 2nd survey. Decrease in chewing ability was associated with decrease in psychological well-being in urban seniors; deterioration in visual capacity and movement capability was associated with decline in psychological well-being in the rural elderly.

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John B. Nezlek, Marzena Cypryańska, Piotr Cypryański, Karolina Chlebosz, Karolina Jenczylik, Joanna Sztachańska and Anna M. Zalewska

whenever and wherever they can walk, running does not require a team, individuals can run at their own pace for as long as they choose, and so forth. Given this popularity, it is important to understand the effects that running may have on people’s psychological well-being, and this study was designed to

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Edward McAuley and David Rudolph

This review examines the effects of exercise and physical activity on the psychological well-being of older adults. Unlike most of the literature in this area, this review focuses primarily on those psychosocial outcomes that are generally positive in nature. As well as considering the overall effects of physical activity, the roles of program length, subject sex, age, physical fitness, and measurement are considered. Overall, the results of the 38 studies reviewed are overwhelmingly positive, with the majority reporting positive associations between physical activity and psychological well-being. This relationship appears to be moderated by the length of the exercise programs; longer programs consistently report more positive results. There is little evidence that exercise has differential psychological effects on men and women or on individuals of differing ages. Whereas training protocols seem to result in significant changes in physical fitness and well-being, such improvements appear to be unrelated. The review concludes with a brief discussion of possible mechanisms underlying the physical activity/psychological health relationship, and several directions are recommended for future research.

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Elizabeth Campbell and Graham Jones

This paper considered (a) the psychological well-being of wheelchair sport participants and wheelchair sport nonparticipants, and (b) the influence of competitive level on the psychological well-being of wheelchair sport participants. Psychological well-being was evaluated by considering mood, trait anxiety, self-esteem, mastery, and individual self-perceptions of health and well-being. Wheelchair sport participants exhibited an iceberg profile of positive well-being with lower tension, depression, anger, and confusion and higher vigor than the sport nonparticipant group. The sport participant group also showed significantly greater levels of mastery and more positive perceptions of their health and well-being than the sport nonparticipant group. International athletes had (a) higher levels of vigor than the national and recreational groups; (b) lower levels of anxiety than the regional and recreational groups; (c) higher levels of self-esteem than the national, regional, and recreational groups; (d) higher levels of mastery than the regional and recreational groups; and (e) more positive perceptions of their well-being than the national, regional, and recreational groups.

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Timothy LaVigne, Betsy Hoza, Alan L. Smith, Erin K. Shoulberg and William Bukowski

We examined the relation between physical fitness and psychological well-being in children ages 10–14 years (N = 222), and the potential moderation of this relation by sex. Participants completed a physical fitness assessment comprised of seven tasks and a diverse set of self-report well-being measures assessing depressive symptoms, loneliness, and competence. Peers reported on social status and teachers rated adaptive functioning, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms. Multiple regression analyses indicated a significant association between physical fitness and psychological well-being for both boys and girls. Higher levels of physical fitness were associated with lower levels of peer dyadic loneliness and fewer depressive symptoms; greater cognitive, social, and athletic competence; greater feelings of self-worth; and better teacher reports of adaptive functioning. An interaction between internalizing and sex indicated a significant and negative association between physical fitness and internalizing symptoms for males only. No other moderation effects by sex were observed. Results suggest that physical fitness is associated with a range of well-being indicators for both boys and girls in this age group.

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William McTeer and James E. Curtis

This study examines the relationship between physical activity in sport and feelings of well-being, testing alternative interpretations of the relationship between these two variables. It was expected that there would be positive relationships between physical activity on the one hand and physical fitness, feelings of well-being, social interaction in the sport and exercise environment, and socioeconomic status on the other hand. It was also expected that physical fitness, social interaction, and socioeconomic status would be positively related to psychological well-being. Further, it was expected that any positive zero-order relationship of physical activity and well-being would be at least in part a result of the conjoint effects of the other variables. The analyses were conducted separately for the male and female subsamples of a large survey study of Canadian adults. The results, after controls, show a modest positive relationship of physical activity and well-being for males but no such relationship for females. The predicted independent effects of the control factors obtained for both males and females. Interpretations of the results are discussed.

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Kaori Ishii, Ai Shibata, Minoru Adachi, Yoshiyuki Mano and Koichiro Oka

Background:

Sedentary behaviors (SB) are associated with health indicators; however, there are currently very few studies that have examined these associations, especially in conjunction with psychological factors, in children. The current study examined the independent relationship between objectively assessed SB, and indicators of obesity and psychological well-being, among Japanese children.

Methods:

A total of 967 elementary-school children completed a cross-sectional survey. SB was measured with accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. Psychological well-being data (eg, anxiety and behavior problems) were collected via a self-report questionnaire. To determine the relationship of SB with degree of obesity and psychological well-being, linear regression analyses were conducted to relate the indicators of obesity and psychological well-being on SB, adjusted by gender, grade, percentage of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day, duration spent wearing the accelerometer, and degree of obesity.

Results:

SB was significantly related to behavioral/emotional problems (β = .280, P = .010, R 2 = .015). There was a statistically significant relationship between SB and anxiety (β = .206, P = .059, R 2 = .007). No significant association with degree of obesity was found.

Conclusions:

Excess SB relates higher levels of behavioral/emotional problems and anxiety. These results can inspire the development of interventions that promote well-being and enhance psychological health, by focusing on SB in Japanese children.

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Patricia Marten DiBartolo and Carey Shaffer

This study examines eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and general psychological well-being in female nonathletes and Division III college athletes. A total of 115 nonathletes and 94 athletes completed measures of eating attitudes, body satisfaction, trait affect, reasons for exercise, and perceived self-competence. On the majority of measures, the scores of athletes revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning than the scores of nonathletes. These results indicate that female athletic involvement can be associated with healthy eating and psychological functioning. Future research should give consideration to which environments may foster healthy sports participation.

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C. Michael Greenwood, David A. Dzewaltowski and Ron French

The importance of self-efficacy as a cognitive mediator of wheelchair mobile individuals’ psychological well-being was examined. Specifically assessed were competitive wheelchair tennis participants’ and wheelchair nontennis participants’ mood and self-efficacy toward performing tennis and general wheelchair mobility tasks. Wheelchair tennis participants exhibited an iceberg profile of positive well-being and were higher than the Profile of Mood States norm on vigor and lower than the norm on tension, anger, depression, fatigue, and confusion. Furthermore, wheelchair mobility self-efficacy significantly correlated with wheelchair tennis self-efficacy. More important, both self-efficacy measures correlated significantly with vigor for the wheelchair tennis participants and wheelchair mobility self-efficacy correlated significantly with each mood factor except depression for the wheelchair nontennis participants. It was concluded that wheelchair mobile individuals participating in tennis may be more confident about performing tennis skills and general wheelchair mobility tasks than are wheelchair mobile nonparticipants.