Elite adolescent soccer players may represent one athletic population that is vulnerable to developing psychological distress following deselection. This study examined the proportion of players experiencing clinical levels of psychological distress following selection procedures and whether player status (i.e., deselected vs. retained) had a significant effect on psychological distress. Data was collected from 91 players who completed the General Health Questionnaire -12 at three time points: 7–14 days before selection procedures, 7 days after and 21 days after. Although outcomes were heterogeneous, a sizable proportion of deselected players were found to experience clinical levels of psychological distress. A factorial ANOVA (p < .001) found that deselected players experienced higher levels of psychological distress than retained players at postselection time points. The research provides evidence that some deselected players are “at risk” of developing clinical levels of psychological distress. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
David J. Blakelock, Mark A. Chen, and Tim Prescott
Susana Carrapatoso, Greet Cardon, Delfien Van Dyck, Joana Carvalho, and Freja Gheysen
reduced risk of psychological distress. By contrast, lack of social support was also associated with psychological distress in older adults ( Boen, Dalgard, & Bjertness, 2012 ). There is also empirical evidence showing that social support is related to physical activity (PA) and exercise. Social support
Martin J. Turner, Stuart Carrington, and Anthony Miller
athlete mental health. Given the importance of mental health in athletes, and the recent call to action within the sport psychology domain ( MacIntyre et al., 2016 ), the present study seeks to advance the knowledge base concerning the antecedents of psychological distress in athletes. Psychological
Jessica Murphy, Christopher Gladney, and Philip Sullivan
found that 20% of student athletes reported psychological distress scores indicative of severe mental illness ( Sullivan, Blacker, Murphy, & Cairney, 2019 ). These distress scores were significantly higher than in nonstudent athletes and the general population, highlighting the increased vulnerability
Pia-Maria Wippert and Jens Wippert
As career termination is an incisive event in life, it is therefore important to understand the effects of different types of retirement on an athlete’s biography. Thus, the present longitudinal study is concerned with the effects of career termination of professional national team-athletes on the development of psychopathological symptoms, locus of control, self-concept, and mood, with special consideration of the mediator variable “subjective control of event-onset.” Data were collected from 42 professional athletes (17 of whom experienced an unexpected dismissal and 4 voluntarily retired) using standardized questionnaires (SCL-90-R, ASTS, FKK) 10 days before event entrance (baseline-test), 10 days after, 3 weeks after, and 5.5 months after onset of career termination. Although the baseline data did not reveal personality differences between the groups, dismissed athletes showed significantly stronger psychological distress after event onset. They displayed a stronger initial reaction, a more severe crisis, and longer transition periods than the control group. Results are discussed in connection with the combination of social evaluative threat and forced failure during event onset and their strong effects on distress after career termination.
Emma S. George, Louisa Jorm, Gregory S. Kolt, Hilary Bambrick, and Sanja Lujic
Physical activity is an important factor in healthy aging and has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms. This association, however, is relatively understudied in older men. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the association between physical activity (Active Australia Survey) and psychological distress (Kessler-10). Participants were a sample of 17,689 men age ≥65 yr drawn from a large-scale Australian cohort study of people age 45 years and over (The 45 and Up Study). The likelihood of reporting high or very high levels of psychological distress decreased with increasing weekly sessions of physical activity. Compared with participants reporting no sessions of physical activity, the fully adjusted odds ratio for high or very high psychological distress was .66 (95% CI .51–.85) for men who undertook 1–6 sessions of physical activity per week and decreased to .57 (95% CI, .43–.79) for men who reported 16 or more weekly sessions. The cross-sectional findings show that older men who are more active are less likely to report psychological distress, regardless of their level of functional limitation. Further research, informed by these findings, is required to investigate causal pathways and the temporal sequence of events.
Ben Laslett and Mark Uphill
& Shaffer, 2008 ) for the separable components of mental illness and mental health (in Keyes’ terms), given that mental illness is a contested term, Uphill et al. ( 2016 ) argued that the term psychological distress may be more inclusive and less stigmatizing, and that there is a value from a practitioner
Sinéad O’Keeffe, Niamh Ní Chéilleachair, and Siobhán O’Connor
issues, 13 which highlights the extent of psychological distress postinjury. Research to date has shown that elite male Gaelic footballers who have sustained 1 or more severe musculoskeletal injuries during their career increase their chances of experiencing symptoms of psychological distress compared
Renee Newcomer Appaneal, Frank M. Perna, and Kevin T. Larkin
Features of posttraumatic distress have been associated with treatment noncompliance and delayed surgical recovery among general medical and trauma populations. Although cognitive-affective and behavioral features of posttraumatic distress have been demonstrated among adult and adolescent athletes with injuries, physiological responses associated with posttraumatic distress have not yet been examined in this population. The objective of this study was to examine psychophysiological stress reactivity to orthopedic trauma among male athletes who sustained a severe sport injury. Athletes with injuries (n= 7) and non-injured athlete controls (n= 5) completed self-report measures of psychological distress and were then shown injury video footage while heart rate and skin conductance measures were recorded. After exposure to orthopedic trauma-related video footage, athletes with injuries demonstrated significantly greater skin conductance reactivity and subjective distress compared to controls. As demonstrated among other medical and trauma populations, athletes with injuries exhibit exaggerated stress reactivity profiles when primed with orthopedic trauma stimuli.
John Cairney, Brent E. Faught, John Hay, Terrance J. Wade, and Laurie M. Corna
Although physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety, research on the mental health benefits of PA in older adults is limited. Moreover, the psychosocial factors that might mediate or moderate the relationship between PA and depression in this population are largely unexplored.
Using a sample of adults age 65 and older (N = 2736), we examined whether the major components of the stress process model (stress, social support, mastery, self-esteem) and physical health mediate or moderate the relationship between PA and depressive symptoms.
Physical health has the single largest effect, accounting for 45% of the effect of PA on depression. The stress process model, with physical health included, accounts for 70% of the relationship between PA and depression.
Among older adults with above average levels of perceived mastery, greater physical activity is associated with higher levels of depression. Limitations and directions for further research are discussed.