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Kate N. Jochimsen, James D. Doorley, Ana-Maria Vranceanu, Brian Noehren, Stephen T. Duncan, and Cale A. Jacobs

Key Points ▸ Three-month postoperative, but not preoperative, psychological factors were associated with perceived improvement following hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome. ▸ Lower postoperative pain catastrophizing, lower postoperative kinesiophobia, and higher postoperative

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Ruben Vist Hagen, Håvard Lorås, Hermundur Sigmundsson, and Monika Haga

achievement across school subjects is a continuing issue in educational psychology ( Barkoukis et al., 2014 ), and the aim is to understand the different interacting constraints that potentially lead to improved academic achievement. Psychological factors, such as pupils’ motivation, self-perceived competence

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Daniel Vicentini de Oliveira, Matheus Amarante do Nascimento, Bráulio Henrique Magnani Branco, Rogéria Vicentini de Oliveira, José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Júnior, Gabriel Lucas Morais Freire, and Sônia Maria Marques Gomes Bertolini

with life ( Oliveira et al., 2018 ). In this study, our hypothesis was that psychological factors will predict sedentary behavior of older adults. Furthermore, we hypothesize that self-esteem, life satisfaction, purpose in life, stress, depression, and anxiety predict sedentary behavior. Therefore, our

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Jeanette M. Garcia, John R. Sirard, Ross Larsen, Meg Bruening, Melanie Wall, and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to examine, using structural equation modeling, the associations between nominated friend physical activity (PA), friend social support with individual PA-related psychological factors, and adolescent PA.

Methods:

Data were obtained from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity Among Teens), a large cross-sectional study conducted in 20 middle and high schools. The sample consisted of 1951 adolescents (mean age: 14.25 ± 1.96, 54% female, 68% ethnic minorities). PA, parent and friend social support (perceived social support for PA from parents and friends), and psychological measures (PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and PA barriers) were assessed by self-report questionnaires. The SEM analysis consisted of 1 observed variable: friend PA, and 2 latent constructs: psychological factors, perceived social support.

Results:

The model was a good fit, indicating that there were significant direct effects of both friend PA (P < .01) and psychological factors (P < .0001) on adolescent PA. In addition, psychological factors mediated the association between friend PA and adolescent PA.

Conclusion:

The results of this model suggest that psychological factors and friend PA are associated with adolescent PA, and that psychological factors may play an important role. Future studies should further examine the association of both friend PA and psychological variables with adolescent PA.

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Gretchen Kerr and Harold Minden

This study reports data regarding gymnastic injuries. Examined were the number, severity, and location of injuries, events associated with injury occurrence, relationship in time between occurrence and competition, and the perceptions of causes. In addition, this study investigated the relationships between the psychological factors of trait anxiety, locus of control, self-concept and stressful life events, and the occurrence of athletic injuries. The subjects were 41 elite female gymnasts and five national level coaches. There was a high rate of injury (83 %), primarily to the ankle region, with most injuries occurring during the floor exercise. The timing of injuries was related to the approach of competition. The data indicated that stressful life events were significantly related to both the number and severity of injuries. Significant relationships were not found between trait anxiety, locus of control, self-concept, and the injury measures.

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Melissa Evans, Robert Weinberg, and Allen Jackson

The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the psychological factors associated with drug use in a group of college athletes and to compare athlete drug users to nonusers. A questionnaire was given to male (N=377) and female (N=167) Division I college athletes asking them about their use or nonuse of drugs. Frequency, intensity, and duration of use/nonuse of seven drug categories (alcohol, amphetamines, anabolic steroids, barbiturates, cocaine, hallucinogens, and marijuana) were used to divide subjects into categories of high user and low user/nonuser on each of the drugs. Dependent measures included the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Test, and questions assessing the stressors athletes experience in their dual role as student-athletes. A MANOVA was conducted to distinguish significant differences between high and low drug users on the dependent variables. Results indicated that alcohol, the most widely used drug, produced the most significant results. Specifically, discriminant analysis revealed high alcohol users (75th percentile) had significantly higher scores on the POMS anger, fatigue, and vigor subscales than did the low alcohol users (25th percentile). In addition, females in the alcohol low user/nonuser group felt more pressure from coaches to perform well than did females in the high user group; for males, the reverse was true. Future research recommendations include using larger subject pools and athletes of different ages and skill levels.

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Jérémy B. J. Coquart, Yancy Dufour, Alain Groslambert, Régis Matran, and Murielle Garcin

The purpose was to study the relationships between psychological factors and perceptually-based values (Ratings of Perceived Exertion: RPE and Estimated Time Limit: ETL). The researchers obtained the scores of several psychological factors (anxiety, extraversion-introversion, neuroticism-stability, self-esteem, motivation, psychological resistance and endurance, desire for success, social desirability, dynamism, competitiveness, activity control, risk-taking, emotional control, aggressiveness, sociability, cooperation, acceptance of a judgment, and leadership) among 23 cyclists. The cyclists performed a graded exercise test in which the researchers collected RPE and ETL at 150, 200, 250 and 300W. Correlations between RPE/ETL and psychological factors were examined. RPE was correlated with leadership, psychological resistance and endurance. ETL was significantly correlated with psychological endurance. These results suggest a link between psychological factors, effort perception, and the time limits predicted by teleoanticipation. These relationships varied according to intensity.

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Maureen R. Weiss, Vicki Ebbeck, and Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal

Visual demonstrations have long been regarded as a critical instructional method for children’s motor skill and social-emotional development. Despite their widespread importance, skill demonstrations have often been characterized by a failure to consider age related differences in children’s cognitive and physical abilities. Similarly, the potential psychological effects of modeling on children’s behaviors in the physical domain have rarely been discussed. Thus the purpose of this paper is to review theoretical and research perspectives from the motor behavior and psychology literatures about developmental and psychological factors associated with children’s modeling of motor skills. Specifically, this paper will emphasize (a) how children perceive characteristics of a visual demonstration, (b) how they translate perceptions to actions that attempt to match the skill demonstration, and (c) how observational learning can be used to enhance self-confidence and motivation in youth. Practical implications for maximizing motor skill and psychosocial development in children are addressed in each section of the paper.

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Caterina Pesce, Alessandro Donati, Luciana Magrì, Lucio Cereatti, Michelangelo Giampietro, Carla Monacelli, and Arnaldo Zelli

The use of ergogenic aids is common in sport, even among preadolescent athletes (8,15,25). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between preadolescents’ use of nutritional ergogenic aids (creatine and amino acids) and gender, age, athletic participation, and sport-relevant psychological factors (i.e., sport success motivation, task and ego orientation, self-efficacy). Two thousand four hundred fifty 11- to 13-year-old children participated in this study. Results suggest that substance use increases with age, especially among male preadolescents; that gender differences are particularly marked among older preadolescents; and that a high commitment to sport training represents a risk factor of ergogenic supplementation only when it is linked to certain psychological dispositions, such as a high ego orientation and a low task orientation.

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Nico W. Van Yperen

This prospective study was designed to identify psychological factors that predict career success in professional adult soccer. Post hoc, two groups were distinguished: (1) Male soccer players who successfully progressed into professional adult soccer (n = 18) and (2) Male soccer players who did not reach this level (n = 47). Differences between the two groups were examined on the basis of data gathered in the initial phase of their careers, 15 years earlier. The psychological factors that predicted career success while statistically controlling for initial performance level and demographic variables were goal commitment, engagement in problem-focused coping behaviors, and social support seeking. On the basis of their scores on the significant predictor and control variables, 84.6% of the adolescent youth players were classified correctly as successful or unsuccessful.