Coaches’ psychological functioning is becoming an increasingly popular research topic. This is due, in part, to the recognition that coaches can have a positive or negative impact on athletes’ psychological experiences and must be psychologically well to function optimally in their roles
Thriving, Depleted, and At-Risk Canadian Coaches: Profiles of Psychological Functioning Linked to Self-Regulation and Stress
Kylie McNeill, Natalie Durand-Bush, and Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre
Well-Being in Elite Sport: Dimensions of Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being Among Elite Orienteers
Carolina Lundqvist and Fredrik Sandin
This study examined subjective (SWB), psychological (PWB) and social well-being (Social WB) at a global and sport contextual level among ten elite orienteers (6 women and 4 men, median age = 20.4, range 18–30) by employing semistructured interviews. Athletes described SWB as an interplay of satisfaction with life, sport experiences and perceived health combined with experienced enjoyment and happiness in both ordinary life and sport. SWB and PWB interacted, and important psychological functioning among the elite athletes included, among other things, abilities to adopt value-driven behaviors, be part of functional relationships, and to self-regulate one’s autonomy. The ability to organize and combine ordinary life with elite sport, and the use of strategies to protect the self during setbacks was also emphasized. For a comprehensive theoretical understanding of well-being applicable to elite athletes, the need for a holistic view considering both global and sport-specific aspects of WB is discussed.
Associations Between Physical Fitness and Children’s Psychological Well-Being
Timothy LaVigne, Betsy Hoza, Alan L. Smith, Erin K. Shoulberg, and William Bukowski
We examined the relation between physical fitness and psychological well-being in children ages 10–14 years (N = 222), and the potential moderation of this relation by sex. Participants completed a physical fitness assessment comprised of seven tasks and a diverse set of self-report well-being measures assessing depressive symptoms, loneliness, and competence. Peers reported on social status and teachers rated adaptive functioning, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms. Multiple regression analyses indicated a significant association between physical fitness and psychological well-being for both boys and girls. Higher levels of physical fitness were associated with lower levels of peer dyadic loneliness and fewer depressive symptoms; greater cognitive, social, and athletic competence; greater feelings of self-worth; and better teacher reports of adaptive functioning. An interaction between internalizing and sex indicated a significant and negative association between physical fitness and internalizing symptoms for males only. No other moderation effects by sex were observed. Results suggest that physical fitness is associated with a range of well-being indicators for both boys and girls in this age group.
Psychological Functioning as a Moderator of the MAC Approach to Performance Enhancement
Andrew T. Wolanin and Lori A. Schwanhausser
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of subclinical psychological difficulties, as assessed by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP; Gardner & Moore, 2004b, 2006), on the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC; Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007) performance enhancement intervention. Thirteen collegiate field hockey and volleyball athletes participated in a 7-week MAC protocol, and their results were compared to those of a control group of 7 same-sport athletes. Nonparametric analysis of the data offers additional support for MAC as a strategy for enhancing the athletic performance of collegiate athletes and suggests the importance of the accurate assessment of subclinical psychological difficulties to ensure the successful application of sport psychology interventions. In essence, these results suggest that the presence or absence of subclinical psychological difficulties may serve as a moderating factor in performance enhancement efforts.
Experiences of Peak Performance in Elite American Football
Andy Gillham and Craig Stone
attributed 40–90% of their success in sport to mental factors. Anderson, Hanrahan, and Mallet ( 2014 ) highlighted that elite athletes constantly strive to achieve a superior state of psychological functioning in order to achieve peak performance. Krane and Williams ( 2006 ) noted that athletes report
Effectiveness and Benefits of Exercise on Older People Living With Mental Illness’ Physical and Psychological Outcomes in Regional Australia: A Mixed-Methods Study
Gabrielle McNamara, Caroline Robertson, Tegan Hartmann, and Rachel Rossiter
Accredited Exercise Physiologist for test–retest reliability. Final test scores as well as observational notes for each test on any movement difficulties faced by the participants were recorded. Psychological State Two self-reported measures of psychological function were used: the Kessler 10 (K10; Andrews
The Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, Physical and Mental Health, and Physical Activity: A Scoping Review
Brook Hadwen, Eva Pila, and Jane Thornton
health, psychological functioning, and depressive symptoms. Self-Reported General Mental Health Using data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health component, researchers explored whether physical activity was associated with better mental health in adults with ACEs. Respondents were
An Exploration of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Assistant Coaches’ Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration
Johannes Raabe, Kim Tolentino, and Tucker Readdy
be a critical need for coach educators and sport psychology practitioners to nurture and maintain optimal psychological functioning among coaches in general—and those who serve in the assistant role and in NCAA Division I in particular—to allow them to experience well-being and perform at a high
A Comparison of Female College Athletes and Nonathletes: Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Psychological Well-Being
Patricia Marten DiBartolo and Carey Shaffer
This study examines eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and general psychological well-being in female nonathletes and Division III college athletes. A total of 115 nonathletes and 94 athletes completed measures of eating attitudes, body satisfaction, trait affect, reasons for exercise, and perceived self-competence. On the majority of measures, the scores of athletes revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning than the scores of nonathletes. These results indicate that female athletic involvement can be associated with healthy eating and psychological functioning. Future research should give consideration to which environments may foster healthy sports participation.
Acute Exercise and Anxiety Reduction: Does the Environment Matter?
Edward McAuley, Shannon L. Mihalko, and Susan M. Bane
This study was designed to examine whether the exercise environment affected individuals’ anxiety responses. Participants either sat quietly (control) or exercised in either a laboratory or a setting of their own choosing. State anxiety measures were assessed at baseline, during activity, and following 15 minutes of rest after activity. Analyses indicated that the exercising conditions significantly reduced anxiety, whereas the control condition did not. Additional analyses indicated that anxiety increased from baseline during exercise and then was reduced upon exercise cessation. The implications of these findings for the examination of acute exercise effects on psychological function are discussed.