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Shauna Ericksen, Geoff Dover, and Richard DeMont

factors. 1 Currently, there are no guidelines or recommendations for ATs to address the psychological concerns of athletes with psychological interventions for injury prevention purposes. The critical appraisal sought to provide insight in an underutilized area of AT to provide some practical

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Carla Meijen, Alister McCormick, Paul A. Anstiss, and Samuele M. Marcora

feasible (see Meijen et al., 2020 ), and so it is important to consider ways that may allow endurance athletes to continue in the face of these demands. Psychological strategies can be used for this, and psychological interventions can be used to develop psychological strategies. Recreational endurance

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Alister McCormick, Carla Meijen, and Samuele Marcora

effects of psychological interventions such as PST on performance in actual endurance events, and these studies showed equivocal intervention effects ( McCormick, Meijen, & Marcora, 2015 ). People typically perform better in endurance tasks when competing ( McCormick et al., 2015 ). Further, athletes need

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Michael J. Greenspan and Deborah L. Feltz

Although sport psychologists utilize numerous interventions and techniques intended to enhance the performance of athletes in competition, the selection of those interventions has not always been based on research for which adequate validity has been established. In an attempt to provide sport psychologists with a working body of accurate knowledge and suggestions for future intervention research, an analysis and synthesis of research is presented that addresses the efficacy of different psychological interventions with athletes performing in competitive situations in the sport in which they regularly compete. From information reported in 19 published studies, covering 23 interventions, it was concluded that educational relaxation-based interventions and remedial cognitive restructuring interventions with individual athletes are, in general, effective.

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Britton W. Brewer, Karin E. Jeffers, Albert J. Petitpas, and Judy L. Van Raalte

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate perceptions of three different psychological interventions in the context of sport injury rehabilitation. In Experiment 1, college students (N = 161) rated their perceptions of goal setting, imagery, or counseling as an adjunct to physical therapy for a hypothetical injured athlete. In Experiment 2, injured athletes (N = 20) received brief introductory sessions of goal setting, imagery, and counseling. Subjects’ perceptions were assessed immediately following each intervention. In both experiments, subjects displayed a preference for goal setting, although positive perceptions were obtained for all three interventions. Females’ perceptions of the interventions were significantly more positive than those of males in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. The findings suggest that goal setting, imagery, and counseling are sufficiently credible to be examined in controlled outcome studies with injured athletes.

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Urban Johnson

Objective:

To explore the effectiveness of psychological interventions for a sample of competitive athletes with long-term injuries.

Design:

Modified 2-group, pretreatment and posttreatment (repeated measure).

Patients:

58 patients, 14 in the experimental group and 44 in the control group.

Interventions:

Three intervention strategies: stress management and cognitive control, goal-setting skills, and relaxation/guided imagery.

Main Outcome Measure:

Mood level was used as the outcome variable.

Results:

The experimental group had a higher overall mood level at the midpoint and end of rehabilitation and were also feeling more ready for competition than the control group was, both as rated by themselves and by the treating physiotherapist The only strategy to show statistical differences was relaxation/guided imagery.

Conclusions:

The results of this study support the idea that a short-term intervention has the potential to elevate mood levels in competitive athletes with long-term injuries.

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Linda Corbally, Mick Wilkinson, and Melissa A. Fothergill

should be directed at examining the ability of psychological interventions to reduce the psychological demands of endurance sports ( McCormick, Meijen, & Marcora, 2018 ). The support for PST techniques has been equivocal, with performance benefits suggested as limited ( Moore, 2009 ). Nevertheless, one

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Stephanie J. Hanrahan

People who live in the villas (i.e., slums) of Buenos Aires are confronted with poverty, poor and dangerous living conditions, and discrimination. Ten weeks were spent in the villas delivering a program designed to enhance life satisfaction and self-worth through games and the development of mental skills. The purpose of this paper is not to report on the content or the effectiveness of the program, but rather to explore the variables within Argentina and the villas as well as my own cultural biases that may have influenced the delivery of a psychological intervention program. Argentine factors include a high prevalence of psychologists and a psychoanalytic focus. Characteristics of the villas include environmental factors (e.g., transportation issues, sanitation), logistical issues (e.g., venues, access to writing implements), and psychological matters (e.g., hopelessness, different perceptions of confidence). Practitioner concerns included limited familiarity with life in the villas and having values that might be different from those of the participants. The discussion includes recommendations for others who are considering working in similar cultural and contextual situations.

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John H. Kerr

In this article, the basic postulates of reversal theory are described, and the potential of the theory for professional practice in sport psychology is clarified. At focus is the reversal theory approach to athlete problem assessment (especially reversal process problems), intervention treatment and strategies, and the behavior of the successful therapist towards the athlete. Reversal theory’s comprehensive conceptual model, together with applications of the theory in psychotherapy, are used to support arguments for an eclectic but systematic approach to intervention work with sport performers.

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Jolly Roy

school swimmers revealed significant differences between baseline and precompetitive cognitive state anxiety and somatic state anxiety. The authors emphasized the importance of assessing state anxiety among swimmers during competition and use psychological interventions to regulate their psychological