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Joke Opdenacker, Christophe Delecluse, and Filip Boen

The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the long-term effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention (n = 60) and a structured exercise intervention (n = 60) on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults compared with a control group (n = 66), and (2) to test the longitudinal fit of the exercise and self-esteem model (EXSEM). Immediately after the 11-month interventions, the lifestyle group showed significant improvements in self-perceived physical condition, sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical self-worth. In the structured group, significant effects were found on physical condition and sport competence. One year later, the lifestyle program had significant effects on body attractiveness and global self-esteem, while the structured group showed significant improvements in physical condition, sport competence, and body attractiveness. Path analyses revealed a good fit for the EXSEM across the 2-year period.

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Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Andrew C. White, Hayley C. Russell, and Aynsley M. Smith

The psychology of sport concussions consists of psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors that contribute to sport concussion risks, consequences, and outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to present a sport concussion-adapted version of the integrated model of psychological response to sport injury and rehabilitation (Wiese-Bjornstal, Smith, Shaffer, & Morrey, 1998) as a framework for understanding the roles of psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors in sport concussions. Elements of this model include preinjury psychological risk factors, postinjury psychological response and rehabilitation processes, and postinjury psychological care components. Mapped onto each element of this model are findings from the research literature through a narrative review process. An important caveat is that the subjective nature of concussion diagnoses presents limitations in these findings. Future research should examine psychological contributors to concussion risk, influences of physical factors on psychological symptoms and responses, and efficacy of psychological treatments utilizing theory-driven approaches.

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Kenneth R. Fox, Charles B. Corbin, and William H. Couldry

The Psychological Model for Physical Activity Participation and the Physical Estimation and Attraction Scales (PEAS) were developed by Sonstroem using adolescent male subjects. This study investigated the adequacy of the model and instrument for explaining the involvement of college-age females in physical activity. Results indicated that although the model worked similarly for both sexes, there were important differences. Attraction to physical activity, as measured by the Attraction scale, does not contribute to the model for the females in this study, but it does for males. Physical estimation emerged as a key factor, particularly for females, in its relationship with self-esteem, fitness, and physical activity levels. The Estimation Scale appears to be a reliable and powerful instrument for assessing this construct. Future application and development of the model and scales is discussed.

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Marsha A. Casselman-Dickson and Mary Lynn Damhorst

The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyclists at different levels of involvement in the sport differ in their use of cycling clothing for role definition A social psychological model provides the theoretical framework for the study of 56 female bicyclists. Lower involved cyclists did not show a tendency to use dress to compensate for lack of achievement in the sport role. In addition, no differences were found between higher involved and lower involved cyclists in their expression of individuality through dress and conforming behavior to other cyclists. Possible intervening factors, such as gender role socialization, subcultural norms and traditions, experience, and achievement motivation, as evidenced in previous and present research, were discussed as to how they may confound applicability of the model.

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Margaret J. Safrit, Terry M. Wood, and Rod K. Dishman

Sonstroem's psychological model for physical activity offers a testable theory for understanding certain aspects of involvement and outcomes among adolescent boys. The usefulness of the model for other populations cannot be clarified, however, until the psychometric properties of its technology, the Physical Estimation and Attraction Scales (PEAS), are known for the groups studied. As a step in this direction, the factorial validity of PEAS responses among college males (N = 488) and females (N = 347) was examined. An independent group of college females (N =413) was also sampled to examine the general ability of the initial findings. These results revealed a robust factor of items that apparently tap perceptions of general physical competence and a perceived strength factor. These emerged across samples and analyses and were not gender-specific. Investigators using the PEAS with adult populations should consider its unique factor structure in the process of testing Sonstroem's physical activity model. Psychometric research regarding revision of the PEAS for adult populations is recommended with the aim of reducing instrument length while maintaining construct validity and measurement precision.

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Julie A. Waumsley, Brian Hemmings, and Simon M. Payne

To date there has not been a comprehensive discussion in the literature of work-life balance for the sport psychology consultant. The number and complexity of roles often undertaken by consultants may lead to potential stress if roles conflict. Underpinned by Role Theory (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964) and the Spillover Hypothesis (Staines, 1980) this paper draws on the work-life balance literature to present the potential conflicts and ethical dilemmas experienced by the sport psychology consultant as a result of conducting multiple roles. With an applied focus, ways of obtaining work-life balance are suggested through a psychological model outlining personal organizational skills, ongoing supervision/mentoring and reflective practice, and safeguarding leisure time. While certain aspects of the model are built on the UK experience, many of the suggestions will be applicable to sport psychology consultants regardless of their location. Ideas for future research directions involving exploring conflicting roles, work-life balance and coping issues for the sport psychology consultant are presented.

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Leehu Zysberg and Rotem Hemmel

motivational models and classic psychological models such as the health belief model and others. 5 , 6 Most of these veteran models suggest that personality traits, perceived ability, perceived external factors, and emotional–motivational factors play a consistent role in individual health-promoting behavior

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Howard N. Zelaznik

representation of time so that piano performance is controlled or guided by the internal representation. The idea that timed motor performance relies upon an internal representation of time, which is commonly called a clock, is a pervasive notion in human performance. Many psychological models rely upon the

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Maria Kavussanu and Christopher Ring

, research into doping in amateur competitive athletes is important. A number of psychological models have been proposed to explain doping in sport (e.g., Barkoukis, Lazuras, & Tsorbatzoudis, 2016 ; Donovan, Egger, Kapernick, & Mendoza, 2002 ). The aim of the present research was to extend previous work by

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Andrea Schlegel, Rebecca Pfitzner, and Joerg Koenigstorfer

a certain ontological and epistemological vagueness, which means that it does not easily lend itself to becoming a subject (or object) of social analysis” (p. 32). In their environmental psychological model, Mehrabian and Russell ( 1974 ) considered information rate (measured via 14 adjectives) as a