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Shinji Yamaguchi, Yujiro Kawata, Yuka Murofushi, Nobuto Shibata, and Tsuneyoshi Ota

positive predisposition ( Ishizu & Ambo, 2013 ). Therefore, a person’s level of vulnerability can affect their level of psychological pain. Vulnerability refers to a cognitive structure that is more susceptible to stress ( Sinclair & Wallston, 1999 ). Hayashi (2002 , p. 1) defined vulnerability as “a

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Gopal Nambi, Walid Kamal Abdelbasset, Saud F. Alsubaie, Ayman K. Saleh, Anju Verma, Mohamed A. Abdelaziz, and Abdulaziz A. Alkathiry

Objective: To find the short-term psychological and hormonal effects of virtual reality training on chronic low back pain in American soccer players. Design, Setting, Participants: The 3-block random sampling method was used on 54 university American soccer players with chronic low back pain, and they were allocated into 3 groups: virtual reality training (VRT; n = 18), combined physical rehabilitation (n = 18), and control (n = 18) groups at University Hospital. They underwent different balance training exercises for 4 weeks. The participants and the therapist who is assessing the outcomes were blinded. Psychological (pain intensity and kinesiophobia) and hormonal (glucose, insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance, growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol) values were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks, and after 6 months. Results: The baseline demographic, psychological, and hormonal data between the VRT, combined physical rehabilitation, and control groups show no statistical difference (P ≥ .05). Four weeks following training, the VRT group shows more significant changes in pain intensity and kinesiophobia than the combined physical rehabilitation and control groups (P < .001), and the improvement was noted in the 6-month follow-up. All the hormonal variables (glucose, insulin, growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol) show significant changes at 4-week training (P < .001), except for the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (P = .075) between the 3 groups. At 6-month follow-up glucose, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol show more significant difference in the VRT group than the other 2 groups (P < .001). At the same time, insulin (P = .694), Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (P = .272), and growth hormone (P = .145) failed to show significant changes between the groups. Conclusion: Training through virtual reality is an effective treatment program when compared with conventional exercise training programs from a psychological and hormonal analysis perspective in American soccer players with chronic low back pain.

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Kaitlyn C. Jones, Evelyn C. Tocco, Ashley N. Marshall, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod, and Cailee E. Welch Bacon

structural alterations associated with dysfunctional cognitive control of pain in patients with low back pain . Eur J Pain . 2018 ; 22 ( 4 ): 745 – 755 . PubMed ID: 29239055 doi:10.1002/ejp.1159 10.1002/ejp.1159 29239055 7. Gajsar H , Titze C , Levenig C , et al . Psychological pain responses in

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Zachary L. Mannes, Erin G. Ferguson, Nicole Ennis, Deborah S. Hasin, and Linda B. Cottler

important predictor of reduced pain intensity and positive chronic pain treatment outcomes ( Kratz et al., 2017 ; Probst et al., 2019 ; Veehof et al., 2016 ). Recent evidence supports the need for further investigation of psychological pain-related factors among NFL retirees as they may affect the

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Claudia G. Levenig, Michael Kellmann, Jens Kleinert, Johanna Belz, Tobias Hesselmann, Jahan Heidari, and Monika I. Hasenbring

: reflections on a risk-dance culture . Qual Res Sport Exerc Health . 2011 ; 3 : 152 – 173 . doi:10.1080/2159676X.2011.572181 10.1080/2159676X.2011.572181 13. Gajsar H , Titze C , Levenig C , et al . Psychological pain responses in athletes and non-athletes with low back pain: avoidance and

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Inhyang Choi, Damian Haslett, Javier Monforte, and Brett Smith

parents physically hinder and engender psychological pain in their children, which in turn may become a huge discouragement for the children to engage in activism. As one current athlete and one former athlete said: Young children do not have a prejudice towards disability. Instead adults are too biased

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Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith, and Louis Passfield

is adopted to eschew the psychological pain of rejection and bolster conditional self-worth for achievement, and to gain the approval of others. A specific form of parental socialization purported to increase perfectionism is excessive achievement expectations. This pathway of perfectionism