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Carrie S. Baker, Jennifer M. Medina McKeon, and Ellen L. Usher

Self-efficacy of balance, a psychological characteristic, may provide information regarding psychological risk factors for lower-extremity injury. Validated instruments to assess self-efficacy of balance do not currently exist. The objective of this study was to determine the face and content validity of the Self-Efficacy of Balance Scale (SEBS) for an adolescent population, as well as content validity, construct and convergent validity of the overall instrument. A series of panelists (n = 11) assessed proposed items for face and content validity for self-efficacy of balance. Construct and convergent validity were assessed with active college individuals (n = 74) and female high school basketball athletes (n = 57). Original items were revised to 21 items. Panelists validated both face and content validity of the SEBS. All items were assessed to have the construct of self-efficacy. Evidence of convergent validity supported the proposed construct of self-efficacy, and was found to be relevant to the physical functioning of a young, active population.

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Urban Johnson

The rehabilitation of 77 competitive athletes with long-term injuries was followed for 2–3 years from the time of the injury with the aim of identifying potential risk factors in rehabilitation. Seven athletes not returning to competitive sport despite favorable physical records were compared with 5 athletes who returned despite unfavorable records and with 65 athletes whose rehabilitation met expectations. Twelve tests were employed on four different occasions. The results suggested that being younger, being female, and having had no previous experience with injury characterized the nonreturning athlete. An insufficient mental plan for rehabilitation and a predominantly negative attitude toward it, as well as restricted social contacts with fellow athletes and a low mood level, appeared to accompany a problematic and prolonged rehabilitation. It was concluded that the nonreturning, long-term injured athlete can be identified as early as the beginning of the rehabilitation process.

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Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Andrew C. White, Hayley C. Russell, and Aynsley M. Smith

The psychology of sport concussions consists of psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors that contribute to sport concussion risks, consequences, and outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to present a sport concussion-adapted version of the integrated model of psychological response to sport injury and rehabilitation (Wiese-Bjornstal, Smith, Shaffer, & Morrey, 1998) as a framework for understanding the roles of psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors in sport concussions. Elements of this model include preinjury psychological risk factors, postinjury psychological response and rehabilitation processes, and postinjury psychological care components. Mapped onto each element of this model are findings from the research literature through a narrative review process. An important caveat is that the subjective nature of concussion diagnoses presents limitations in these findings. Future research should examine psychological contributors to concussion risk, influences of physical factors on psychological symptoms and responses, and efficacy of psychological treatments utilizing theory-driven approaches.

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Jérôme Vaulerin, Frédéric Chorin, Mélanie Emile, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, and Serge S. Colson

Context: Firefighters participating in mandatory physical exercise sessions are exposed to a high risk of ankle sprain injury. Although both physiological and psychological risk factors have been identified, few prospective studies considered the complex interaction of these factors in firefighters. Objective: To prospectively determine whether intrinsic physical risk factors and work-related environments predict ankle sprains occurring during on-duty physical exercise in firefighters during an 8-month follow-up period. Design: Prospective. Setting: Fire Department and Rescue Service. Participants: Thirty-nine firefighters were selected based on convenience sampling. Intervention: Participants performed physical tests and completed questionnaires. Main Outcome Measures: Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test, Weight-Bearing Lunge Test, anthropometric measures, postural stability, chronic ankle instability (Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool) scores, previous injuries, and perceived psychosocial work environment (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire [COPSOQ]). Results: During the follow-up, 9 firefighters sustained an injury. Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test and Weight-Bearing Lunge Test performances, Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool scores, history of previous ankle sprain, and specific dimensions of the COPSOQ significantly differed between injured and uninjured firefighters. Lower-limbs asymmetries of the Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (ie, anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions) and the Weight-Bearing Lunge Test were predictors of ankle sprains. Conclusions: These findings originally provide evidence that intrinsic factors mainly contribute to ankle sprains, although psychosocial work environment assessment could also characterize firefighters at risk.

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Mattias Eckerman, Kjell Svensson, Gunnar Edman, and Marie Alricsson

absence than the primary injury. 1 Traditionally, literature is largely focused on physical, biomechanical, and physiological aspects of injury prediction. 5 However, the role of psychological risk factors regarding sports injuries has been studied over the last few decades. 6 To address possible

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Christianne M. Eason, Stephanie M. Singe, and Kelsey Rynkiewicz

empirical evidence to support the anecdotal accounts of WFG among this population. As highlighted in previous literature, 22 guilt and conflict should be viewed as a psychological risk factor that can negatively impact the physical, emotional, and psychological health of employees. Both should be mitigated

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Zachary L. Mannes, Erin G. Ferguson, Nicole Ennis, Deborah S. Hasin, and Linda B. Cottler

demonstrating the high rates of daily pain and its negative consequences among NFL retirees, studies have yet to delineate between the physical and psychological risk factors of pain intensity in this group. Much of the older biomedical literature examined chronic pain from a physical medicine point of view

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Rachel A. Millstein, Jeff C. Huffman, Anne N. Thorndike, Melanie Freedman, Carlyn Scheu, Sonia Kim, Hermioni L. Amonoo, Margot Barclay, and Elyse R. Park

: 18020934 doi:10.1007/BF02874549 18020934 10.1007/BF02874549 16. Cohen BE , Panguluri P , Na B , Whooley MA . Psychological risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease: findings from the Heart and Soul Study . Psychiatry Res . 2010 ; 175 ( 1–2 ): 133 – 137

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Emily R. Hunt and Melissa C. Day

. Lieblich , A. , Tuval-Mashiach , R. , & Zilber , T. ( 1998 ). Narrative research: Reading analysis and interpretation . Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage . 10.4135/9781412985253 Linton , S.J. ( 2000 ). A review of psychological risk factors in back and neck pain . Spine, 25 , 1148 – 1156 . PubMed ID

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Claudia G. Levenig, Michael Kellmann, Jens Kleinert, Johanna Belz, Tobias Hesselmann, Jahan Heidari, and Monika I. Hasenbring

. PLoS One . 2017 ; 12 : e0180130 . PubMed ID: 28662110 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0180130 28662110 10.1371/journal.pone.0180130 3. Linton SJ . A review of psychological risk factors in back and neck pain . Spine . 2000 ; 25 : 1148 – 1156 . PubMed ID: 10788861 doi:10.1097/00007632-200005010-00017 10