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Lenny D. Wiersma

Extreme sport athletes perform in environments that are characterized by danger, unpredictability, and fear, and the consequences of a mistake include severe injury or death. Maverick’s is a big-wave surfing location in northern California that is known for its cold water temperatures, dangerous ocean wildlife, deep reef, and other navigational hazards. The purpose of this study was to use a phenomenological framework to understand the psychology of big-wave surfing at Maverick’s. Seven elite big-wave surfers completed in-depth phenomenological interviews and discussed the psychology related to various stages of big-wave surfing, including presurf, in the lineup, catching the wave, riding the wave, wiping out, and postsurf. Big-wave surfers described a variety of experiences associated with surfing at Maverick’s and discussed several ways that they coped with its challenges. The results provide a greater understanding of the psychology of participating in an extreme environment.

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Ashley A. Hansen, Joanne E. Perry, John W. Lace, Zachary C. Merz, Taylor L. Montgomery and Michael J. Ross

Applied sport psychology practice requires the incorporation of many areas of specialty, including clinical psychology, kinesiology, and sport psychology. In order to capture the complexities that exist in this practice, the model of clinical sport psychology (CSP) has been established ( Gardner

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Alessandro Quartiroli, Sharon M. Knight, Edward F. Etzel and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek

The demanding nature of psychology professionals’ work, including the provision of competent, effective, and ethical services to their clients, is associated with both personal and professional challenges (e.g.,  Stevanovic & Rupert, 2004 ). Such challenges can negatively affect providers’ personal

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Alessandro Quartiroli, Edward F. Etzel, Sharon M. Knight and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek

The profession of sport psychology has evolved from concentrating on athletes’ sport performance to focusing more holistically on the mental health needs, general well-being, and personal growth of athletes ( McEwan & Tod, 2015 ). However, the complexity and nuances of the world of sport has

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Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Leslee A. Fisher and Scott B. Martin

study of ATs’ use of sport psychology with injured athletes, concluded that “it is neither necessary nor feasible for athletic trainers to have the knowledge and skill to employ all of these techniques themselves, particularly the more specialized psychological skills such as relaxation and imagery” (p

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Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim and Ceri Diss

sport psychology research are not “fit for purpose” when it comes to applied practice and perpetuate the gap between research and practice. Martens recommended that we seek to develop practical theories and insights that reflect the real world of applied practice. To illustrate, the T-SIRG does not

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Stewart Cotterill

nature of these challenges in the sport lend them to engagement with sport psychology, and sport psychology practitioners. While this is the case, sport psychology provision in cricket has lagged behind many other sports and domains, particularly in comparison with Olympic sports in the United Kingdom

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Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Andrew C. White, Hayley C. Russell and Aynsley M. Smith

The psychology of sport concussions consists of psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors that contribute to sport concussion risks, consequences, and outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to present a sport concussion-adapted version of the integrated model of psychological response to sport injury and rehabilitation (Wiese-Bjornstal, Smith, Shaffer, & Morrey, 1998) as a framework for understanding the roles of psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors in sport concussions. Elements of this model include preinjury psychological risk factors, postinjury psychological response and rehabilitation processes, and postinjury psychological care components. Mapped onto each element of this model are findings from the research literature through a narrative review process. An important caveat is that the subjective nature of concussion diagnoses presents limitations in these findings. Future research should examine psychological contributors to concussion risk, influences of physical factors on psychological symptoms and responses, and efficacy of psychological treatments utilizing theory-driven approaches.

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Gregg Tkachuk, Adrienne Leslie-Toogood and Garry L. Martin

We suggest that expanded use of behavioral assessment strategies in sports by researchers and practitioners will be beneficial for researchers, practitioners, athletes, and coaches. Behavioral assessment involves the collection and analysis of information and data in order to identify and describe target behaviors, identify possible causes of the behaviors, select appropriate treatment strategies to modify the behaviors, and evaluate treatment outcomes. In this paper, we summarize characteristics of traditional approaches to assessment in sport psychology, describe differences between behavioral assessment and traditional assessment, examine components of behavioral assessment for sport psychology practitioners and researchers, and discuss future directions in behavioral assessment in sport psychology.

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Rainer Martens

Two sport psychologies have emerged—academic sport psychology and practicing sport psychology—which presently are on diverging courses because of an unjustified belief in orthodox science as the primary source of knowledge. To support this contention, the basic assumptions of orthodox science are examined, with the doctrine of objectivity singled out as fallacious and especially harmful in that it attempts to remove the person from the process of knowing. Polanyi’s (1958) heuristic philosophy of knowledge, which places humans in the center of the process of knowing, is recommended as an alternative approach for the study of human behavior. This alternative approach reveals the inadequacy of the laboratory experiment which has been invented primarily to pursue the doctrine of objectivity. Next, the Degrees of Knowledge theory is proposed as an alternative way to view the reliability of knowledge. This view, within the heuristic paradigm, places great significance on experiential knowledge. Recommendations for an improved science of human behavior emphasizes the idiographic approach, introspective methods, and field studies. Also, recommendations are made for a more progressive approach to applied research, and the significance of knowledge synthesis from applied research. The two sport psychologies will converge when orthodox science and the doctrine of objectivity are replaced with the heuristic paradigm and its emphasis on experiential knowledge.