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Saurabh Sharma and M. Ejaz Hussain

second-best psychometric properties. The SPADI has been found to be valid, reliable, and responsive in patients with various shoulder conditions, including shoulder arthritis, rotator cuff injury, and impingement. 8 However, there is little or no psychometric evidence of the existing Hindi version of

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley and Sara Santarossa

visual impairments. Our results revealed that the TGMD-3 demonstrated strong internal consistency and interrater reliability speaking to its reliability for children and adolescents aged 3–18 years with visual impairments. Moreover, our results revealed very strong psychometric properties for both the

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Ka-Man Leung, Pak-Kwong Chung, Tin-Lok Yuen, Jing Dong Liu and Donggen Wang

( 2013 ) did not conduct psychometric tests or examine the factor-analytic properties of the SEQ; therefore, its validity and reliability have remained questionable. Because of the need for valid and reliable measures of SE, this study examined the psychometric properties of the SEQ among older adults in

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Pak-Kwong Chung and Ka-Man Leung

( McArthur & Raedeke, 2009 ; Raedeke, 2007 ), but its psychometric properties have yet to be investigated. The PACES was not used with older adults until 2011, when Mullen et al. ( 2011 ) validated an eight-item PACES for a sample of older adults. A novel eight-item PACES was developed, and the results of

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Farzad Mohammadi, Abbas Bahram, Hasan Khalaji, Dale A. Ulrich and Farhad Ghadiri

skills. For example, according to the hop, three consecutive repetitions changed to four consecutive repetitions ( Ulrich, 2016 ). Given the number of changes made in the TGMD-3, a systematic evaluation of its psychometric properties should be conducted before collecting new norms and using the test

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Chunxiao Li, Lijuan Wang, Martin E. Block, Raymond K.W. Sum and Yandan Wu

, 2010 ). Since the development and validation of the PESEISD-A, it has been applied in empirical studies to measure GPE teachers’ self-efficacy toward including students’ with ASD (e.g., Taliaferro & Harris, 2014 ; Taliaferro et al., 2015 ). Psychometric properties of the PESEISD-A still need further

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Mohammadreza Pourahmadi, Hamid Hesarikia, Ali Ghanjal and Alireza Shamsoddini

show the measured angle. To date, the iHandy Level app has been often used in the literature to evaluate human joints flexibility and some papers have studied its psychometric properties (reliability and validity). This study aims to critically review the published literature in order to assess the

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Hyun-Kyoung Oh and Francis M. Kozub

The study was designed to estimate the psychometric properties of Hastings and Brown’s (2002a) Difficult Behavior Self-efficacy Scale. Participants were two samples of physical educators teaching in Korea (n = 229) and the United States (U.S.; n = 139). An initial translation of the questionnaire to Korean and pilot study were conducted along with the larger study using a confirmatory factor analysis procedure. Internal consistency estimates (weighed Omega) for the five-item scale were 0.88 both the Korean and U.S. samples. The average variances extracted for the one factor were 0.59 for the total data set and 0.57 each for the Korean and U.S. samples. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a five-item, unidimensional model for self-efficacy for the total sample: Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) = 0.97, Nonnormed Fit Index (NNFI) = 0.95, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.98, and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.03. Only the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA = 0.12) fell below criterion levels of acceptable fit, with similar fit indices occurring in separate analyses of the Korean and U.S. samples. Invariance testing across the two samples supported metric invariance (similarity of factor loadings) but not scalar invariance (U.S. means higher on all five items). The factor structure for the self-efficacy scale provides an initial estimate of validity and internal consistency for use with different teacher groups.

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Roberta Bgeginski, Diogo A. DeSousa, Bruna M. Barroso, Janete Vettorazzi, Michelle F. Mottola, Felipe B. Schuch and José Geraldo L. Ramos


The Physical Activity Readiness Medical Examination (PARmed-X) for Pregnancy aims to facilitate the communication between the health care provider, the fitness professional and the pregnant woman. The purpose of the current study was to test the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the PARmed-X for Pregnancy.


Reliability and validity of psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the PARmed-X for Pregnancy were tested in 107 women recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Participants completed the first page of the instrument twice with a minimal interval of 1 week for test-retest reliability analysis. The absolute and relative contraindications to exercise on page 2 of the document were completed by the obstetrician.


Results indicated good evidence of construct validity. The isolated items in the PARmed-X document presented a large heterogeneity in kappa coefficients ranging from very low estimates to perfect estimates. The overall indication of prescription of physical activity, nonetheless, presented a good kappa coefficient of 0.749.


The Brazilian Portuguese version of the PARmed-X for Pregnancy can be applied as a valid tool for medical screening by health care providers to help inform safe exercise prescription during pregnancy.

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Herbert W. Marsh, Garry E. Richards, Steven Johnson, Lawrence Roche and Patsy Tremayne

Two samples of high school students (n = 315 and n = 395) completed the new Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to demonstrate support for the 11 scales of physical self-concept (Strength, Body Fat, Activity, Endurance/Fitness, Sport Competence, Coordination, Health, Appearance, Flexibility, General Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem) that the PSDQ is designed to measure, the replicability of its good psychometric properties in the two samples, and the replicability of the factor structure over gender. Subjects in Sample 1 also completed responses to the Physical Self-Perception Profile (Fox, 1990) and the Physical Self-Concept Scale (Richards, 1988). CFA models of this multitrait-multimethod data provided support for both the convergent and discriminant validity of responses to the three instruments. Comparisons of psychometric, theoretical, and pragmatic considerations of the three instruments led to the recommendation of the PSDQ in a wide variety of research and applied settings.