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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low and Michael Chia

Purpose:

Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports.

Methods:

Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations.

Results:

Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday.

Conclusion:

There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes’ psychomotor performance.

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Andrzej W. Ziemba, Jan Chmura, Hanna Kaciuba-Uscilko, Krystyna Nazar, Piotr Wisnik and Wojciech Gawronski

This study was designed to determine the effect of ginseng treatment on multiple choice reaction time (RT) during exercise. Fifteen soccer players (age 19.07 ± 0.62 yrs) were placed in a double-blind manner into one of two groups: ginseng (n = 7), receiving 350 mg of ginseng daily for 6 weeks, or placebo (n = 8), receiving a placebo daily for 6 weeks. Before and after the treatment all the subjects performed an incremental bicycle ergometer exercise with intensity increasing 50 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. RT was measured before exercise, and then in the last 2 min of each exercise load. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and lactate threshold (LAT) were also determined from the exercise test. Ginseng treatment was found to shorten RT at rest and during exercise, shifting the exercise load associated with the shortest RT toward higher exercise loads. Neither ginseng nor placebo influenced VO2 max and LAT. In conclusion, ginseng extract does improve psychomotor performance during exercise without affecting exercise capacity.

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Rose Martini, A.E. Ted Wall and Bruce M. Shore

The use of metacognition differs with different levels of cognitive ability, but it is not known whether children of different psychomotor abilities use metacognition differently. This study used a think-aloud protocol to compare the active use of metacognition in children with different psychomotor abilities—high skill, average, developmental coordination disorder (DCD)—during a ball-throwing task. Children with DCD did not verbalize fewer or different metacognitive concepts than either the average or high skill children; however, relative to their counterparts, a significant median proportion of the concepts verbalized by children with DCD were found to be inappropriate or inaccurate. These findings reflect ineffective metacognitive processing by children with DCD during a psychomotor task.

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David Albines, Joshua A. Granek, Diana J. Gorbet and Lauren E. Sergio

We characterize bimanual coordination development for the first time in a large sample of children (n = 303) in relation to age, sex, and athletic experience. A further aim is to document the effect of these factors on development to indirectly gain insight into the neural processes that underlie this advanced level of eye–hand coordination. This was a cross-sectional design involving three age groups (range: 9–15 years) that were further separated by sex and level of athletic experience. Participants completed two bimanual tasks and a unimanual control task. While there was no significant change in unimanual movement speed, we observed that females performed the bimanual tasks faster, compared with males. Further, we found that select-level athletes had superior bimanual abilities. Lastly, we found an interaction of sex and skill across age. All groups achieved significant improvement in bimanual coordination with the exception of nonselect males. These data provide a description of normal bimanual coordination development in children during the developmentally crucial ages of 9–15 years, taking account of sex- and experience-related differences.

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Jonathan Leo Ng, Chris Button, Dave Collins, Susan Giblin and Gavin Kennedy

Validated assessment tools for movement competence typically involve the isolation and reproduction of specific movement forms, which arguably neglects individuals’ ability to combine and adapt movements to overcome constraints within a dynamic environment. A new movement assessment tool, the General Movement Competence Assessment (GMCA), was developed for this study using Microsoft Kinect. Movement competence of 83 children (36 boys and 47 girls), aged 8–10 years (9.06 ± 0.75 years) was measured using the GMCA. An exploratory approach was undertaken to examine the internal consistency reliability (McDonald’s omega coefficient) and factorial structure of the GMCA for the study sample. Factorial structure was determined using exploratory factor analysis by principal component analysis with varimax rotation. For the sample data, reliability for the GMCA games were acceptable (ω = 0.53–0.89) and indicated that combinations of movement attributes were measured by GMCA games. Factorial analysis extracted four movement constructs accounting for 71.31% of variance. Dexterity was tentatively identified as a new independent construct alongside currently accepted movement constructs (i.e., locomotion, object-control, stability). While further development of the GMCA is still required, initial results are encouraging in view of an objective and theoretically informed approach to assess general movement competence in children.

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Hawkar S. Ahmed, Samuele M. Marcora, David Dixon and Glen Davison

. Comparable results have been found in previous studies 25 , 26 with football players in which psychomotor performance was found to improve after different running activities (low and high intensity). The explanation given was that different exercise activities (low and moderate) activate central nervous

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Laura Žlibinaitė, Rima Solianik, Daiva Vizbaraitė, Dalia Mickevičienė and Albertas Skurvydas

difference between OxyHb and DeoxyHb; OxyHb, oxygenated hemoglobin; PFC, prefrontal cortex. a P  < .05, group effect. The cognitive and psychomotor performances of the participants are presented in Table  4 . A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA of cognitive performance revealed a significant effect of the time

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Chih-Yen Chang and Tsung-Min Hung

, T.W. ( 2004 ). Electroencephalographic studies of skilled psychomotor performance . Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 21 ( 3 ), 144 – 156 . PubMed ID: 15375345 doi:10.1097/00004691-200405000-00003 Hatfield , B.D. , & Hillman , C.H. ( 2001 ). The psychophysiology of sport: A mechanistic

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Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong and Wai Nam William Tsang

Psychopharmacology, 27 , 270 – 276 . PubMed ID: 22350925 doi:10.1002/hup.2219 10.1002/hup.2219 Paul , M.A. , Gray , G. , Kenny , G. , & Pigeau , R.A. ( 2003 ). Impact of melatonin, zaleplon, zopiclone, and temazepam on psychomotor performance . Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 74 , 1263

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Paulo H.C. Mesquita, Emerson Franchini, Marco A. Romano-Silva, Guilherme M. Lage and Maicon R. Albuquerque

magnitudes for effect statistics. A new view of statistics . 2002 . https://sportsci.org/resource/stats/effectmag.html . Accessed November 20, 2018. 26. Suppiah HT , Low CY , Chia M . Effects of sport-specific training intensity on sleep patterns and psychomotor performance in adolescent athletes