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Jemima C. John, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna Hoelscher, Michael D. Swartz and Chuck Huber

-effects regression techniques robustly accounted for any potential within and between cluster variations across the 6 hospital sites from which the participants were recruited. Thirdly, we used validated scales to assess psychosocial measures and used the International PA Questionnaire long version to explore PA and

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Jordan A. Carlson, James F. Sallis, Nicole Wagner, Karen J. Calfas, Kevin Patrick, Lisa M. Groesz and Gregory J. Norman

Background:

Psychosocial factors have been related to physical activity (PA) and are used to evaluate mediation in PA interventions.

Methods:

Brief theory-based psychosocial scales were compiled from existing measures and evaluated. Study 1 assessed factor structure and construct validity with self-reported PA and accelerometry in overweight/obese men (N = 441) and women (N = 401). Study 2 assessed 2-week reliability and internal consistency in 49 college students.

Results:

Confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit in men and women (CFI = .90; RMSEA = .05). Construct validity was supported for change strategies (r = .29–.46), self-efficacy (r = .19–.22) and enjoyment (r = .21–.33) in men and women, and for cons in women (r = –.19 to –.20). PA pros (r = –.02 to .11) and social support (r = –.01 to .12) were not supported for construct validity. Test-retest reliability ICCs ranged from .49–.81. Internal consistency alphas ranged from .55–.90. Reliability was supported for most scales with further testing needed for cons (alphas = .55–.63) and enjoyment (ICC = 49).

Conclusions:

Many of the brief scales demonstrated adequate reliability and validity, while some need further development. The use of these scales could advance research and practice in the promotion of PA.

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Lizzy Pope, Jean Harvey-Berino, Patrick Savage, Janice Bunn, Maryann Ludlow, Neil Oldridge and Phil Ades

The acceptability of a high-calorie-expenditure (HCE) exercise program in older coronary heart disease patients participating in a behavioral weight-control program was evaluated. Seventy-four overweight patients (median age 63 yr) were randomly assigned to a 5-mo intervention of HCE exercise (3,000–3,500 kcal/wk daily walking) or standard cardiac-rehabilitation (CR) exercise (700–800 kcal/wk). Both groups received counseling to achieve a dietary caloric deficit of 3,500 kcal/ wk. Assessments at baseline and 5 mo included self-reported measures of quality of life and psychosocial variables. The HCE group experienced significantly greater weight loss (8.2 ± 4 vs. 3.7 ± 5 kg, p < .001). Changes from baseline to 5 mo on scores of physical, emotional, and social functioning were greater for the HCE than CR group (p < .05). HCE exercise also resulted in greater positive change in exercise enjoyment (p = .05), which was mediated by weight change. Even high-risk older adults can be successful in an HCE exercise program and experience no adverse physical or emotional changes.

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Deborah L. Dewar, David Revalds Lubans, Philip James Morgan and Ronald C. Plotnikoff

Background:

This study aimed to develop and evaluate the construct validity and reliability of modernized social cognitive measures relating to physical activity behaviors in adolescents.

Methods:

An instrument was developed based on constructs from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and included the following scales: self-efficacy, situation (perceived physical environment), social support, behavioral strategies, and outcome expectations and expectancies. The questionnaire was administered in a sample of 171 adolescents (age = 13.6 ± 1.2 years, females = 61%). Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to examine model-fit for each scale using multiple indices, including chi-square index, comparative-fit index (CFI), goodness-of-fit index (GFI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Reliability properties were also examined (ICC and Cronbach’s alpha).

Results:

Each scale represented a statistically sound measure: fit indices indicated each model to be an adequate-to-exact fit to the data; internal consistency was acceptable to good (α = 0.63−0.79); rank order repeatability was strong (ICC = 0.82−0.91).

Conclusions:

Results support the validity and reliability of social cognitive scales relating to physical activity among adolescents. As such, the developed scales have utility for the identification of potential social cognitive correlates of youth physical activity, mediators of physical activity behavior changes and the testing of theoretical models based on Social Cognitive Theory.

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Xiaoyang Shi, Yan Wang, Xiuxiu Huang, Shangshang Gao, Qiaoqin Wan and Shaomei Shang

shows that (a) the correlations between the CHAMPS-C and the physiological psychosocial measures ranged from 0.23 to 0.35 ( p  < .01 or p  < .001), except for BMI, which was not correlated with the CHAMPS-C; (b) the CHAMPS-C caloric expenditure per week for all PA was significantly correlated with the

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Elizabeth Orsega-Smith, Nancy Getchell and Lindsay Palkovitz

How does gender influence physical and psychosocial characteristics in physically active older adults? Much of the previous research on physical function in older women focuses on either the frailty of older women or on physical function irrespective of gender. These studies leave unknown the specific influence of regular physical activity on older women.

Furthermore, few studies have examined the relationship between physical activity and psychosocial characteristics in older exercisers. We wanted to investigate whether differences exist between groups of older female and male adults who maintain a physically active lifestyle. Twenty-three female and 14 male physically active older adults performed physical function tests (i.e., chair stands, timed up-and-go, 6-minute walk) and filled out questionnaires related to psychosocial measures (i.e., social support, self-esteem, satisfaction with life). There were no differences in any physical function between the groups, and only one psychosocial measure (guidance) statistically differed (F (1, 31) = 4.14, p = .044). These results suggest that physically active women may not necessarily follow the trajectory towards frailty. More research needs to be done with a greater range of ages and physical activity levels.

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Gregory J. Welk, Jodee A. Schaben and Mack Shelley

Homeschooling is increasingly popular, but little is known about how homeschooling affects physical activity patterns or fitness levels. This study compares patterns of physical fitness, physical activity, and psychosocial correlates of physical activity in homeschooled youth and youth attending public school. Fitness levels were obtained using the PACER aerobic fitness test, physical activity levels were assessed with 3 days of accelerometry, and psychosocial correlates were assessed with the Children’s Physical Activity Correlates scale. There were no significant main effects for fitness comparisons, but significant age and gender interactions indicate that variability exists within these samples for fitness. No school type effects were evident for the physical activity measures or the psychosocial correlate measures, but trends in the data suggest the possibility of age-related interactions for the psychosocial measures. Additional research on possible differences between homeschooled youth and youth attending public school is needed to better understand these trends.

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Sarah M. Lee, Allison Nihiser, Darcy Strouse, Barnali Das, Shannon Michael and Marian Huhman

Background:

Co-physical activity (between parents and children), as an outcome variable, and its correlates have not been examined previously. The purpose of this study was to investigate correlates of co-physical activity among a nationally representative sample of 9- to 13-year-old children and their parents.

Methods:

Data were from the 2004 Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey, a national survey of 5177 child-parent dyads. Parents of 9- to 13-year-old children were asked to report co-physical activity. Parents and children responded to a series of sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial measures. Co-physical activity was treated as a dichotomous variable (ie, some or none). Logistic regression was used to assess associations of correlates directly and possible interactions between correlates.

Results:

More than three-quarters of parents reported co-physical activity at least 1 day in the prior week. Age, race/ethnicity, sports team participation, eating meals together, parental confidence to influence the child’s organized activity, and the child’s perception of parental support were significantly associated with co-physical activity.

Conclusion:

The majority of respondents reported participating in co-physical activity, and multiple sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates were significantly associated with co-physical activity. This study provides insight for physical activity interventions that might involve parents.

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Weight Distribution: Where Is the Effect? Lanay M. Mudd * Jim Pivarnik * Claudia B. Holzman * Nigel Paneth * Karin Pfeiffer * Hwan Chung * 11 2012 9 9 8 8 1168 1168 1177 1177 10.1123/jpah.9.8.1168 Brief Physical Activity-Related Psychosocial Measures: Reliability and Construct Validity Jordan

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Megan N. Houston, Johanna M. Hoch and Matthew C. Hoch

.apmr.2008.08.214 19236982 10. Lentz TA , Zeppieri G Jr , George SZ , et al . Comparison of physical impairment, functional, and psychosocial measures based on fear of reinjury/lack of confidence and return-to-sport status after ACL reconstruction . Am J Sports Med . 2015 ; 43 ( 2 ): 345 – 353