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Shelby Waldron, J.D. DeFreese, Brian Pietrosimone, Johna Register-Mihalik, and Nikki Barczak

Sport specialization has been linked to multiple negative health related outcomes including increased injury risk and sport attrition, yet a gap remains in our understanding of potential psychological outcomes of early specialization (≤ age 12). The current study evaluated the associations between retrospective athlete reports of sport specialization and both retroactive and current psychological health outcomes. Early specializers reported significantly higher levels of multiple maladaptive psychological outcomes (e.g., global athlete burnout, emotional and physical exhaustion, sport devaluation, amotivation). Overall, findings suggest that specialization environment factors, in addition to the age of specialization, are potentially critical factors in determining health and well-being outcomes. Findings support prominent position statements suggesting early specialization may be associated with increased health risks. Study findings may also inform the development of guidelines and recommendations to aid parents, coaches, and athletes in positively impacting athlete psychosocial outcomes.

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Thelma S. Horn

Developmentally based theories in the social-psychology field emphasize the important role that significant adults play in relation to children’s psychosocial health and well-being. In particular, these theories suggest that the responses adults provide to children in reaction to their performance attempts may affect the children’s own perceptions and evaluations of their competencies, as well as their overall self-worth. In the youth sport setting, coaches may be the main providers of performance-related feedback. The purpose of this paper was to use current research and theory to identify and discuss 4 dimensions of coaches’ feedback that are relevant to the growth and development of young athletes: content, delivery, degree of growth orientation, and extent of stereotyping. The paper ends with recommendations for future research on the topic, with emphasis on examining developmental transitions and why coaches give feedback in particular ways.

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Maureen R. Weiss

educator and sport skill instructor laid a foundation for what would become his passion for research and scholarship—pursuing ways to enhance the psychosocial health and well-being of children and families through participation in sport and physical activity. After completing his M.A. in 1985 and Ph.D. in

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Thelma S. Horn

movement competence are related to (even predictive of) children’s motivation and behavior with regard to physical activity, health-related fitness status, risk for obesity, as well as their psychosocial health and well-being. Much of this cited research is based on cross-sectional research work, but there

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Matthew Burwell, Justin DiSanti, and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

additional articles were conducted at the time of submission in September 2021 and resubmission in January 2022. The search terms included college athletes, athletes, early sport specialization, late sport specialization, sport specialization, HRQOL, quality of life, psychosocial health and well-being

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Nick Galli, Skye Shodahl, and Mark P. Otten

. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 37 ( 5 ), 1534 – 1553 . https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407520903387 10.1177/0265407520903387 Galli , N. ( 2019 ). Psychosocial health and well-being in high-level athletes . Routledge . 10.4324/9781351210942 Higgins , E.T. ( 1987 ). Self-discrepancy: A

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Thelma S. Horn

issue. Summary and Conclusion As the research and theory cited in this paper show, levels of both physical activity and sedentary behavior are quite likely related to, and even predictive of, physical and psychosocial health and well-being. However, there is wide variability between individuals across

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Annette J. Raynor, Fiona Iredale, Robert Crowther, Jane White, and Julie Dare

multiple benefits for older people, including reducing the risk of osteoporotic fractures, improving function and mobility, reducing depressive symptoms, and enhancing psychosocial health and well-being, currently very few RAC providers in Australia offer AEP therapy to residents. This study has

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Joonkoo Yun, Jooyeon Jin, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, and Robert W. Motl

, PA increases opportunities for social interaction and inclusion that may positively impact the psychosocial health and well-being of persons experiencing disability ( Johnson, 2009 ). The ICF model offers a way of appreciating the complexity of the relationship between PA and health in people