A single-subject multiple baseline design across five players was used to assess the effectiveness of public posting in reducing inappropriate on-court behaviors (e.g., verbal abuse by a player during a match). Players were observed throughout the season during weekly challenge matches. The first intervention phase involved initial feedback on inappropriate behaviors and an explanation of the intervention procedures and goal setting. In the second phase, the number of inappropriate behaviors for each player was posted. Results indicated that intervention was effective in immediately reducing the number of inappropriate on-court behaviors for all players. Social validation questionnaires given to players and coaches revealed that the goals, procedures, and outcomes of the intervention were very acceptable.
Zarina J. Galvan and Phillip Ward
Daniel Balderson and Tom Sharpe
This study examined the effects of personal accountability and personal responsibility instructional treatments on elementary-age, urban, at-risk physical education students. A multiple treatment ABAD, ACAD, ADA, control behavior analysis design was implemented across four distinct matched class settings to determine the separate and combined treatment effects of each instructional treatment on the number of occurrences and percentage of class time for the following: teacher management, student leadership, passive and disruptive student off-task, positive social behavior, and student conflict and conflict resolution behaviors. Study participants included fourth- and fifth-grade students from four elementary classes in an inner-city charter-school setting. Results indicated that both personal accountability and personal responsibility treatments were effective in the primary treatment setting for changing all managerial, off-task, and positive social measures in desirable directions. Recommendations include analysis of the potential long-range and generalized effects of social-skill instruction for underserved children and youth conducted in the context of physical education classes.
Phillip Ward, Shannon Smith and Tom Sharpe
An A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to evaluate whether accountability, in the form of public posting, was effective in improving football players’ performance in successfully blocking the forward momentum of the defense and in running routes to a criterion at, or greater than, 90% correct. Five wide receivers on a college football team participated in the study. Data were collected during practice sessions and weekly games. The players’ game performance was not intervened on and served as a measure of both the generality of the intervention and as a product measure of the practice performance. The data show that during public posting the players’ performances met or exceeded the criterion established for practices and that this criterion performance generalized to the game setting. These results support previous findings on tasks and accountability. Moreover, the public posting intervention was easy to implement by the coaches and welcomed by the players.
Craig A. Patrick, Phillip Ward and Darrell W. Crouch
This study investigated the effects of a semiformal accountability intervention (a modified version of the good behavior game) on the occurrence of appropriate and inappropriate social behaviors, and appropriate skill attempts during a 20-lesson volleyball unit. Participants were 67 students in Grades 4, 5, and 6. Following the collection of baseline data, students received intervention consisting of (a) differential awarding and removing of points for appropriate and inappropriate behavior, (b) public posting of team points, (c) the establishment of daily criteria, (d) a special activity for teams that met the criteria, and (e) an end-of-unit activity for teams that consistently met the criteria. A multiple baseline design across students showed that the intervention was effective in reducing inappropriate social behaviors and increasing appropriate social behaviors, but did not affect the number of correct volleyball skills performed. Results are discussed relative to task systems and social skills.
Darrell W. Crouch, Phillip Ward and Craig A. Patrick
In this study, three variations of a withdrawal design were used to assess the effects that group instruction, peer-dyads, and peer-mediated accountability had on the number of trials performed, and how successful those trials were, during one-minute trials of volleyball skills. Peer-mediated accountability consisted of teacher-established goals, peer recording of performance, public posting of student performance, and special content-related activities that served as public recognition of achievement. Participants were 67 elementary school students in grades 4 through 6. Results indicated that students performed more trials and were generally more successful in the peer-mediated accountability condition than during either the peer-dyads or group instruction. Findings are discussed in terms of the contingent relation between tasks and consequences created by the peer-mediated accountability variable.