This article examines German print sport journalists’ perceptions, experiences, and relationships with Bundesliga clubs’ public relations (PR) staffers and each club’s designated press spokesperson, as well the impact of a competitive, multitier 21st-century media environment on their jobs. All Bundesliga clubs are now disseminating more multimedia content on their own through official Web sites and social media such as Twitter and Facebook. Meanwhile, the German newspaper industry is in a state of transformation and decreased prominence among mediums in German sport journalism. A survey of print journalists who cover Bundesliga clubs showed that these changes have affected the historic symbiotic relationship between the sporting press and Bundesliga clubs. Power and media autonomy have increased for Bundesliga clubs and their designated press spokespersons, while print reporters are more dependent on the clubs’ PR staffers to provide access. The surveyed journalists recognize the increasing power of television in German sport journalism, but nearly half do not consider this as negative for their jobs. These print sport journalists are called on to find new ways and types of media content to begin restoring the needed balance in a symbiotic relationship between independent press and PR, while also distinguishing their work from televised media content.
Christoph G. Grimmer and Edward M. Kian
Mark Dottori, Guy Faulkner, Ryan Rhodes, Norm O’Reilly, Leigh Vanderloo, and Gashaw Abeza
children are eating well, children are being active. That includes their teachers, as well.” Discussion This study provides insights that can assist health organizations, sport-participation advocates, sport public relations practitioners, and health researchers seeking to disseminate messages. The content
Since 2010, major college athletics departments have expanded a trend of hiring former beat writers to the hybrid position of sportswriter/public relations (PR) practitioner. This case study explored the routines and roles of a former sportswriter in his PR position at the University of Washington. After observing how he moved through social and professional settings and occupational routines, the author identifies 3 themes surrounding his routines. The themes are sport journalist, PR practitioner, and subordinate. Given the historic antagonism between journalists and PR practitioners, the routines are sometimes at odds with one another. The results indicate that the routines affect content while engaging stakeholders.
G. Clayton Stoldt, Lori K. Miller, and Mark Vermillion
The purposes of this study were to gain insights regarding how sport public relations practitioners in the United States define public relations goals, identify linkages between the public relations function and overall organizational goals, and evaluate public relations’ effectiveness. Using a modified approach to a method first employed by Hon (1997, 1998), the investigators queried 30 public relations professionals in diverse sport settings. Findings indicated that achieving some sort of outcome with an intended audience, although those outcomes varied, was the most common goal. Respondents also indicated that there were linkages between public relations and organizational goals, although the nature of those linkages was not always specified. The most common method of evaluating public relations was tracking media coverage.
Richard D. Waters, Kimberly A. Burke, Zachary H. Jackson, and Jamie D. Buning
Social-media consultants and strategic communication firms have promoted the use of social media by organizations because of their supposed advantages for developing relationships and online communities around the brand. However, critics have challenged these supportive voices because of organizations’ limited control over the sites’ design and the lack of demonstrated return on investment for social-media endeavors. Using the 26 National Football League (NFL) teams with an official Facebook presence, this study compares how public relations practitioners use the NFL teams’ Web sites and Facebook pages to cultivate relationships with fans using stewardship strategies promoted by public relations literature. Results indicate that the NFL teams overwhelmingly favor their own Web sites for relationship-building endeavors over Facebook for 27 of the study’s 33 measures. Explanations for the divergence from consultants’ advice are discussed and grounded in new-media and sports communication research from various scholarly perspectives.
Mark Lowes and Christopher Robillard
.1123/IJSC.2014-0005 Grimmer , C.G. , & Kian , E. ( 2013 ). Reflections of German football journalists on their relationships with Bundesliga club public relations practitioners . International Journal of Sport Communication, 6 ( 4 ), 446 – 463 . doi:10.1123/ijsc.6.4.446 10.1123/ijsc.6
Bastian Popp, Chris Horbel, and Claas Christian Germelmann
.1177/1468794104044431 10.1177/1468794104044431 Grimmer , C.G. , & Kian , E.M. ( 2013 ). Reflections of German football journalists on their relationships with Bundesliga club public relations practitioners . International Journal of Sport Communication, 6 ( 4 ), 446 – 463 . doi:10.1123/ijsc.6.4.446 10.1123/ijsc.6
Ted Hayduk III and Matt Walker
organizational attractiveness for prospective public relations practitioners . Journal of Business Ethics, 103 ( 4 ), 639 – 653 . doi:10.1007/s10551-011-0886-x 10.1007/s10551-011-0886-x Kristof , A.L. ( 1996 ). Person–organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and
Jue Hou, Xiaoxu Yang, and Elliot Panek
public relations practitioners chose coverage tone differently to fit their audiences’ existing knowledge about e-sport in the time frame before 2011 and after 2011. The Tone of E-Sport Coverage Zaller ( 1996 ) argued that opinion is formed through purposeful sampling from accepted messages. In this