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Matthew D. Bird, Eadie E. Simons, and Patricia C. Jackman

seeking help for a mental illness). Personal stigma reflects an individual’s own attitudes toward a person with or seeking help for a mental illness ( Griffiths, Christensen, Jorm, Evans, & Groves, 2004 ). In contrast, perceived public stigma includes stereotypes, discrimination, or prejudice that the

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Robert C. Hilliard, Lorenzo A. Redmond, and Jack C. Watson II

identified as a potential barrier. Stigma Stigma has been defined as existing in two forms: public and self-stigma ( Corrigan, 2004 ). Public stigma is an external form of stigma referring to the belief that society deems an individual possessing certain traits or behaviors as socially unacceptable or

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Matthew D. Bird, Graig M. Chow, Gily Meir, and Jaison Freeman

by others, also known as public stigma, is described as an individual’s perception of discrimination or stereotypes from the public to a stigmatized group ( Corrigan, 2004 ). When investigating public stigma in student-athletes, Kaier, Cromer, Johnson, Strunk, and Davis ( 2015 ) found student

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Rachel S. Wahto, Joshua K. Swift, and Jason L. Whipple

The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the relationships between public stigma, self-stigma, and mental health help-seeking attitudes in college studentathletes, and (b) test whether referral source would have an impact on student-athletes’ willingness to seek mental health help. Participating college student-athletes (n = 43) completed an online survey including measures of stigma (public and self), attitudes, and willingness to seek mental health help. The results indicated that public stigma and self-stigma predicted a significant proportion of variance in attitudes (66%) above and beyond gender and treatment-use history. In addition, student-athletes were more willing to seek help when referred by a family member compared with a coach (d = 0.89), a teammate (d = 1.05), or oneself (d = 1.28). The results have important implications for helping student-athletes seek mental health help when there is a need.

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Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Nicole T. Gabana, Brandon T. Cooper, and Martin A. Swanbrow Becker

timely and appropriate help ( DeLenardo & Terrion, 2014 ; Lopez & Levy, 2013 ). Stigma accounts for 66% of the variance in mental health help-seeking attitudes in student-athletes ( Wahto, Swift, & Whipple, 2016 ). There are three types of stigma. Perceived public stigma (i.e., stigmatization by

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Shelby J. Martin and Timothy Anderson

experiences of self-stigma and public-stigma, and underlying perfectionistic traits. Stigma—a multidimensional construct—is an identified barrier to mental-health help-seeking in samples of athletes and non-athletes (e.g.,  Clement et al., 2015 ; Evans et al., 2011 ; Gulliver, Griffiths, & Christensen, 2010

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Shakiba Oftadeh-Moghadam and Paul Gorczynski

symptoms, social anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms increasingly more than their male counterparts ( Gorczynski, Coyle, et al., 2017 ). Previous research has highlighted that athletes have shown greater perceived public stigma compared with nonathletes, while public stigma, self-stigma, and lack of MHL

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Paul Bernard Rukavina

interpersonal interactions; it occurs in several interrelated forms on multiple levels of an individual’s ecology ( Bos et al., 2013 ; Myre et al., 2021 ). Bos et al. ( 2013 ) illustrates stigma manifesting in four dynamically interrelated ways: structural stigma, self-stigma, public stigma levels, and stigma

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Alexis Peters, Julliana Tapia, and Stephanie H. Clines

-017-0568-6 10.1186/s13643-017-0568-6 9. Corrigan PW , Morris SB , Michaels PJ , Rafacz JD , Rusch N . Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: a meta-analysis of outcome studies . Psychiatr Serv . 2012 ; 63 ( 10 ): 963 – 973 . PubMed ID: 23032675 doi:10.1176/ 23032675

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Rachel Vaccaro and Ted M. Butryn

demons” might have stemmed from a conservative Wisconsin upbringing or from the tendency of athletes to internalize their emotional problems because of the fear of negative public stigmas ( DeLenardo & Terrion, 2014 ). Favor Hamilton was able to conceal some of her mental illness symptoms, but other