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Joey C. Eisenmann, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Germain Thériault, Thomas M.K. Song, Robert M. Malina and Claude Bouchard

The relationship between habitual physical activity and pulmonary function were considered in 424 boys and 366 girls, 9–18 years of age. Indicators of habitual physical activity were assessed using a 3-day activity diary and included estimated daily energy expenditure (EE) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (METs ≥ 4.8). Pulmonary function was measured according to standard procedures. Relationships were examined with partial correlations and ANCOVA, comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of EE and MVPA. When age and stature are statistically controlled, relationships between EE, MVPA, and pulmonary function was generally low and not significant, with the exception of FEV1% in 16–18-year-old girls (r ≤ −0.28). Youth in the highest and lowest quartiles of EE and MVPA do not differ in pulmonary function, except for PEER in 9–12-year-old boys, and FEV1% in 16–18-year-old boys, which are slightly greater (1–3%) in the less active group. These findings indicate that lung volumes, capacities, and flow rates are not consistently related to estimated habitual physical activity in a general, free-living population of youth.

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Frédéric Lemaître, Mario Bedu and Jean Coudert

Pulmonary function was measured in 48 air divers (age range: 8–38 yr) and 56 control participants (age range: 8–34 yr). Static lung volumes, dynamic lung volumes and flows, and the pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide were measured twice, 29 months apart. At both times the adult divers (>18 yr) had higher forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and maximal expiratory flow rate at 50%, as well as lower pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, than did the adult controls. Whatever the age, mean annual changes in these parameters did not differ between groups. Our results indicate that there were no significant changes in pulmonary function in the young (8–12 yr), adolescent, or adult divers compared with healthy controls over the 29-month period. The mean annual changes in forced expiratory flow and volume, however, were negatively correlated with number of years of diving experience in adult divers and with maximal diving depth in adolescent (13–18 yr) divers (p < .05 and p < .001, respectively). Deep diving during the teenage years coupled with years of recreational diving might increase the risk of airway obstruction.

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Thomas W. Pelham, Laurence E. Holt and Michael A. Moss

The objective of this study was to examine pre- and postexercise pulmonary function of males (13 children with asthma, 8 children without asthma) performing controlled exercise in 3 indoor sport environments: ice rink, gymnasium, and swimming pool. A positive test was defined as a 20% decrease in any of the forced expiratory values. Three children with asthma and 2 children without asthma had a greater than 20% decrease in FEV1 and FHVT following activity in the rink. One child with asthma had a greater than a 20% decrease in FEV1 following pool activity. In general, results showed children with asthma had a significant (p < .05) decrease in both FEV1 and FEVT% 5 min following exercise in the ice rink. No similar decrease was found 5 min following gymnasium and pool activity of the same intensity. In general, children without asthma maintained normal pulmonary function in all 3 environments. Evidence from this study would seem to suggest that the environmental conditions of the indoor ice rink may potentiate bronchospasm in some children with asthma.

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Ted. A. Kaplan, Gina Moccia and Robert M. McKey Jr.

The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence, degree, pattern, and time course of pulmonary function test (PFT) changes measured after a dynamic exercise challenge. Forced expiratory maneuvers were performed before and serially after a 7-min run-walk in 44 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twenty-four patients met at least one PFT criterion for exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) within 21 min after exercise, and 38 patients had >5% increase in a PFT parameter at some point after exercise. The mean time of greatest increase in PFTs occurred sooner than the greatest decrease, which was later than for 22 patients with asthma or allergic rhinitis found to have EIB. Age was inversely related to percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV,) after exercise. These results demonstrate a distinct pattern of PFTs measured after exercise in most patients with CF, with an early bronchodilation followed by a significant decrease in PFTs.

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Daniel L. Borges, Mayara Gabrielle Silva, Luan Nascimento Silva, João Vyctor Fortes, Erika Thalita Costa, Rebeca Pessoa Assunção, Carlos Magno Lima, Vinícius José da Silva Nina, Mário Bernardo-Filho and Danúbia Sá Caputo

Background:

Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery.

Methods:

In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge.

Results:

There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03).

Conclusion:

Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.

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Alison Crosbie

Objective

Asthma is a leading cause of chronic illness in children, impacting heavily on their daily life and participation in physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the evidence for the use of physical therapy to improve pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in children with asthma. Furthermore, the review aims to update previous literature on the effect of exercise on health related quality of life.

Methods

A search was conducted for randomized control trials (RCTs) using the electronic databases Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus, AMED, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were included if the participants were asthmatic children aged 6–18 years participating in any mode of physical exercise. Studies were reviewed for study quality, participant details, exercise intervention details, and intervention outcomes.

Results

A total of 16 studies and 516 subjects met inclusion criteria for review. Severity of asthma ranged from mild to severe. No improvement in pulmonary function was observed. Physical training led to an increase in aerobic capacity as measured by VO2max (mL/kg/min).

Conclusions

Findings suggest that physical training does not improve pulmonary function in children with asthma, but does increase aerobic capacity. The small number of studies investigating quality of life suggests that physical training does improve health related quality of life; however further well designed randomized control trials are needed to verify these findings.

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Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da Silva, Fernando César Wehrmeister, Philip H. Quanjer, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Helen Gonçalves, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Pedro Curi Hallal, Fernando Barros and Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

Background:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity from 11 to 15 years of age and pulmonary function (PF) gain from 15 to 18 years of age among adolescents in a birth cohort in Brazil.

Methods:

Longitudinal analysis of the individuals participating in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Physical activity was assessed by self-report at ages 11 and 15, spirometry was performed at ages 15 and 18 (n = 3571). Outcome variables assessed were gains in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Crude and adjusted linear regressions, stratified by sex, and mediation analyses were performed.

Results:

Boys who were active (leisure-time and total physical activity) at ages 11 and 15 had higher gains in FEV1, FVC, and PEF than those who were inactive. Vigorous-intensity physical activity in boys was also associated with FEV1 and FVC gains. Mediation analyses showed that height at age 18 accounted for 5% to 75% of the association between physical activity and PF gains. No significant associations were found among girls.

Conclusions:

Physical activity in early adolescence is associated with gains in PF by the end of adolescence in boys.

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Russell T. Nye, Melissa Mercincavage and Steven A. Branstetter

Background:

How addiction severity relates to physical activity (PA), and if PA moderates the relation between PA and lung function among smokers, is unknown. This study explored the independent and interactive associations of nicotine addiction severity and PA with lung function.

Methods:

The study used cross-sectional data from 343 adult smokers aged 40 to 79 participating in the 2009–10 and 2011–12 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Assessed were the independent relations of nicotine addiction severity, as measured by the time to first cigarette (TTFC), and average daily minutes of moderate and vigorous PA with lung function ratio (FEV1/FVC). Additional analysis examined whether PA moderated the relationship between addiction severity and lung function.

Results:

Greater lung function was independently associated with moderate PA and later TTFC, but not vigorous PA, when controlling for cigarettes per day (CPD), past month smoking, ethnicity, years smoked, and gender (P-values < .05). PA did not moderate the association between addiction severity (TTFC) and lung function (P = .441).

Conclusion:

Among middle-aged to older smokers, increased PA and lower addiction severity were associated with greater lung function, independent of CPD. This may inform research into the protective role of PA and identification of risk factors for interventions.

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Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani and Behnam Gholami Borujeni

effective in patients with CLBP. The present research was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of IMT on core muscle activity, pulmonary function, and pain intensity in athletes with CLBP. Methods Study Design The present single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in

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Bruna M.A. Saraiva, Geferson S. Araujo, Evandro F. Sperandio, Alberto O. Gotfryd, Victor Z. Dourado and Milena C. Vidotto

of this study are to 1) evaluate the walked distance and physiological responses during ISWT in patients with different degrees of AIS compared with control group and 2) evaluate the respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary function, and its correlations with the physiological responses during ISWT