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Roger Bourne, Mark Halaki, Benedicte Vanwanseele and Jillian Clarke

This study investigates the hypothesis that shallow edge lifting force in high-level rock climbers is more strongly related to fingertip soft tissue anatomy than to absolute strength or strength to body mass ratio. Fifteen experienced climbers performed repeated maximal single hand lifting exercises on rectangular sandstone edges of depth 2.8, 4.3, 5.8, 7.3, and 12.5 mm while standing on a force measurement platform. Fingertip soft tissue dimensions were assessed by ultrasound imaging. Shallow edge (2.8 and 4.3 mm) lifting force, in newtons or body mass normalized, was uncorrelated with deep edge (12.5 mm) lifting force (r < .1). There was a positive correlation (r = .65, p < .05) between lifting force in newtons at 2.8 mm edge depth and tip of bone to tip of finger pulp measurement (r < .37 at other edge depths). The results confirm the common perception that maximum lifting force on a deep edge (“strength”) does not predict maximum force production on very shallow edges. It is suggested that increased fingertip pulp dimension or plasticity may enable increased deformation of the fingertip, increasing the skin to rock contact area on very shallow edges, and thus increase the limit of force production. The study also confirmed previous assumptions of left/right force symmetry in climbers.

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

segment, which was known as the finger pulp, and the palm of hand were well supported. The finger pulp supports and palm rest of the PETS were adjusted depending on the hand size of the subject. The subjects kept their pulps in contact with the center of the force transducer in a perpendicular direction

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Diego B. Souza, Michael Duncan and Marcos D. Polito

of up to 2 minutes after the end of the final set of each experimental session. Prior to the blood sample collection, asepsis was performed with 70% alcohol on the digital pulp of the middle finger of the right hand. The puncture was performed using disposable lancets, the drop of blood (5 µL) in

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Mark Holten Mora-Jensen, Pascal Madeleine and Ernst Albin Hansen

Movement Science, 12 , 627 – 651 . 10.1016/0167-9457(93)90009-E Jindrich , D.L. , Zhou , Y. , Becker , T. , & Dennerlein , J.T. ( 2003 ). Non-linear viscoelastic models predict fingertip pulp force-displacement characteristics during voluntary tapping . Journal of Biomechanics, 36 , 497

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

cooked and consumed hot to avoid the creation of resistant starch with cooling  ○ Pulp-free fruit juice and sugary drinks (e.g., soda)  ○ Confectionary, jelly preserves, and honey  ○ Cakes and desserts based on white flour (e.g.,  cakes, puddings) and sugar (e.g.,  jello) but the avoidance of dried or