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No More “Good” Intentions: Purchase Behaviors in Sponsorship

Noni Zaharia, Rui Biscaia, Dianna Gray, and David Stotlar

The growth of sport sponsorship has led to an increase in the number of studies measuring sponsorship outcomes in different sport settings. Most studies, however, have focused on understanding the factors leading to purchase intentions. A more accurate assessment of sponsorship effectiveness would come through measuring actual purchase behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine a sport sponsorship model that included awareness, fit, attitude toward the sponsor, past purchases, purchase intentions, and actual purchases. Data were collected via longitudinal web surveys conducted with soccer fans from the United States. The results of a structural equation model provided evidence that the relationships among the analyzed sponsorship outcomes did not have a significant effect on actual purchase behaviors. The discussion includes questions about the impact of sponsorship variables such as awareness, fit, attitude toward the sponsor, purchase intentions, and past purchases on actual purchase behaviors.

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Focus on Brand Choice: Assessing the Behavioral Response to Sponsorship-Linked Communication

Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer

-linked communication on the consumer’s purchase behavior is limited. As a consequence thereof, calculating the return on investment (ROI) for sponsorships is still regarded as a major challenge ( Cornwell, 2014 ). Since sponsorship—just as any other marketing activity—needs to prove its contribution to overall

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Run Again Another Day: The Role of Consumer Characteristics and Satisfaction in Repeat Consumption of a Sport-Related Experience Product

Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan, and Daniel C. Funk

determinants of consumer satisfaction and purchase behavior ( Kim, Ko, & Park, 2013 ). Race organizers are recognizing the importance of developing effective marketing approaches, and paying greater attention to customer acquisition and retention. This, in turn, has led to increased consideration of how best

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The Demand for Licensed Merchandise in Sports—On the Purchase Channel Choice

Georgios Nalbantis, Marcel Fahrner, and Tim Pawlowski

purchasing behavior for professional sports team-licensed merchandise—From the perspective of group effects . Sport Marketing Quarterly, 22 ( 2 ), 83 – 91 . Chiang , W.K. , Zhang , D. , & Zhou , L. ( 2006 ). Predicting and explaining patronage behavior toward web and traditional stores using

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NBA Primary Market Ticket Consumers: Ex Ante Expectations and Consumer Market Origination

Brian M. Mills, Steven Salaga, and Scott Tainsky

We add to the recent ticket market literature by using a unique, disaggregated, and proprietary data set of primary market ticket sales transactions from a National Basketball Association team that includes previously unavailable information on date of purchase, customer location, and other consumer demographics. We find that local and out-of-market fans differ in their total purchase amounts, with out-of-market fans spending more than local consumers, on average, and differential spending effects based on the home team win probability. In particular, this differential behavior has important implications for Rottenberg’s uncertainty of outcome hypothesis. We find evidence that interest in visiting team quality dominates interest in perceived contest uncertainty, fitting the reference-dependent preference model in the context of low local team quality. Further, these findings also have important implications related to market segmentation and dynamic ticket pricing in professional sport.

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Predicting Behavioral Loyalty through Community: Why Other Fans Are More Important Than Our Own Intentions, Our Satisfaction, and the Team Itself

Masayuki Yoshida, Bob Heere, and Brian Gordon

A consumer’s loyalty to a specific sport team is longitudinal in nature. This longitudinal study examines the effects of consumers’ attitudinal constructs (team identification, associated attachment points, consumer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions) on behavioral loyalty in the context of a professional soccer event. To test the proposed relationships, the authors assess the impact of consumers’ self-reported measures (Time 1) on actual attendance frequency in the first half (Time 2) and the second half (Time 3) of the season. The results indicate that fan community attachment is the only construct that can predict attendance frequency over a longer period of time while team identification, satisfaction and behavioral intentions are not significant predictors of attendance frequency throughout the season. The theoretical model and results reinforce the importance of fan community attachment toward longitudinal attendance frequency and add new insights into the predictive validity of some of the attitudinal marketing measures in the field of sport management.

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Social Media and Consumer Behavior

Andrea N. Geurin

attract and engage Gen Z. In addition, research that focuses on Gen Z purchasing behavior and social media’s role in this decision-making process will also provide valuable information that can be used strategically by sport organizations to increase revenues from Gen Z. Finally, it is important that

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The Process of Organizational Identity: What Are the Roles of Social Responsiveness, Organizational Image, and Identification?

Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin and Matthew Walker

Despite anecdotal claims attesting to the influence that social responsiveness has on the purchase behaviors of consumers, this article examined if a specific initiative could result in such outcomes. We investigated the extent to which the Drive for Diversity (D4D) initiative affected consumers’ perceived image and patronage directed toward NASCAR. This study was partially motivated by the importance of social initiatives in practice to underscore their influence on customer-related outcomes. As such, the findings indicated that the NASCAR’s D4D and the perceived image of the organization are key variables in the model. The results also highlighted the mediating role of image and the moderating role of identification on the proposed relationship. More specifically, the authors found that the socially responsive initiative only moderately influenced consumers’ intentions but when coupled with the image of the organization, this relationship became far more impactful.

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A Conceptual Model of the Corporate Decision-Making Process of Sport Sponsorship Acquisition

David Arthur, Don Scott, and Terry Woods

The general acceptance of sport sponsorship by corporate and sporting worlds alike has led to a situation whereby corporations receive from hundreds to thousands of unsolicited proposals annually. Despite this, there is a general lack of systematic research into sport sponsorship with little information in existence as to how corporations decide between alternative properties. In an attempt to address this situation, this paper develops a conceptual model of the sport sponsorship acquisition process based on the basic tenets of organizational purchasing behavior, contemporary literature on sport sponsorship, and the results of a qualitative study. It is anticipated that the Sport Sponsorship Acquisition Model will form the basis for further scholarly research to ascertain the precise nature of the acquisition process.

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Special Issue Introduction: Name, Image, and Likeness and the National Collegiate Athletic Association

Steven Salaga, Natasha Brison, Joseph Cooper, Daniel Rascher, and Andy Schwarz

between the athlete and the consumer, which ultimately impacts purchasing behavior. Conclusion Historically, the system of “amateurism” imposed by the NCAA has allowed its member institutions the ability to generate sizable revenues while compensating the college athletes, which play a crucial role in