The purpose of this study was of examine the motivational perspectives of athletes participating in the Senior Olympic Games. One hundred thirty-seven senior athletes (54 males. 82 females, and 1 nonidentifier) completed measures of goal orientations, beliefs about the causes of success in sport, intrinsic motivation, and views about the purpose of sport. Multivariate analysis revealed a positive association between task orientation and intrinsic motivation, the belief that success in sport is achieved through hard work, and self-improvement-based purposes of sport. In contrast, ego orientation was associated with the belief that success in sport is achieved by those who are gifted with natural ability and who know how to maximize external and deceptive factors. Further, ego orientation was linked to the belief that the purpose of sport was for personal gain. The motivational implications of the present findings are discussed based on the tenets of goal perspective theory.
Maria Newton and Mary D. Fry
A. Stefanie Mikolaizak, Jochen Klenk, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Michael D. Denkinger, Kilian Rapp and for the ActiFE Study Group
the purpose for leaving the house and the MoT. This population-based study aims to describe the purpose, amount, and frequency by which older adults complete various activities or use MoT. Furthermore, the associations of different activities performed out-of-home and the MoT with the time spent out
Chanam Lee and Anne Vernez Moudon
Walking is a popular recreational activity and a feasible travel mode. Associations exist between walking and the built environment, but knowledge is lacking about specific environmental conditions associated with different purposes of walking.
This cross-sectional study used a survey of 438 adults and objective environmental measures. Multinomial logit models estimated the odds of walking for recreation or transportation purposes.
Utilitarian destinations were positively associated with transportation walking, but recreational destinations were not associated with any walking. Residential density was correlated with both purposes of walking, and sidewalks with recreation walking only. Hills were positively associated with recreation walking and negatively with transportation walking.
Physical environment contributed significantly to explain the probability of walking. However, different attributes of environment were related to transportation versus recreation walking, suggesting the need for multiple and targeted interventions to effectively support walking.
Paul S. Bradley and Jack D. Ade
interruptions rather than fatigue. 14 Therefore, this approach does not seem to be the solution as it provides negligible insight regarding physical efforts with a tactical purpose (eg, recovery running). The scarcity of research merging physical, technical, and tactical components is even more surprising when
Judith H. Placek, Sarah A. Doolittle, Thomas A. Ratliffe, Patt Dodds, Penelope A. Portman and Kathy M. Pinkham
This study described 476 recruits’ physical education backgrounds and beliefs about the purposes for physical education. Beliefs about purposes are formed in part by physical education experiences and are important to examine because they are difficult to change and because they influence students’ receptivity to teacher education. Most recruits recalled programs that focused on traditional team sports, games, and fitness programs, with less emphasis on individual sports and expressive or noncompetitive activities. Few differences by sex, race, or socioeconomic status were found. Recruits’ reported purposes were coded into nine categories; the top purposes were learning skills, named specific activities, and fitness. The discussion focuses on the possibility of the existence of a de facto national curriculum and factors to consider if changes in physical education curriculum are desired.
Andrew T. Kaczynski
Built environments are associated with physical activity (PA), but most studies to date have employed acontextual PA outcome measures. The purposes of this study were to examine the proportion of PA that occurred within participants’ neighborhoods and associations between neighborhood walkability attributes and different intensities and purposes of PA episodes occurring specifically within neighborhoods.
384 community residents completed 7 subscales of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and a detailed 7-day PA log-booklet that included the duration, intensity, and purpose of all episodes.
Only one-third of reported PA episodes occurred in participants’ neighborhoods. Higher ratings for 5 of the 7 walkability variables were associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in at least some moderate-intensity neighborhood PA (versus none), but were not significantly associated with engaging in greater levels of neighborhood PA (150+ versus 1−149 minutes). Land use mix access, street connectivity, and aesthetics were significant predictors of transportation-related neighborhood PA, but only aesthetics was significantly associated with neighborhood recreational PA.
Improving neighborhood walkability may be a stimulus for increased neighborhood PA, especially among largely sedentary individuals, but different attributes are associated with transportation-related and recreational activity.
Joan L. Duda
This study examined the relationship between an athlete's goal perspective (i.e., task or ego orientation) and the perceived purpose of sport among male and female high school athletes. The sport-specific measure of task and ego orientation was found to have a stable factor structure and high internal consistency. Factor analysis of the Purpose of Sport Questionnaire revealed seven factors: sport should (a) teach the value of mastery and cooperation, (b) show people how to be physically active for life, (c) make good citizens, (d) make people competitive, (e) help individuals obtain a high status career, (f) enhance self-esteem, and (g) show people how to get ahead and increase their social status. Results indicated that the importance placed on skill mastery and personal improvement in sport (task orientation) positively related to the beliefs that sport should enhance self-esteem and teach people to try their test, cooperate, and be good citizens. Ego orientation was a positive predictor of the view that sport involvement should enhance one's self-esteem and social status.
Anthony Barnett, Ester Cerin, Man-chin Cheung and Wai-man Chan
Walking is a suitable activity for older adults and has physical and mental health benefits. To devise interventions that impact levels of walking it is necessary to first understand the purposes for which people walk and the destinations to which they walk. Using a 7-day diary and accelerometry, this study investigated destinations and purposes of walking in older adult residents of an ultra-dense Asian city. Participants reported an average of 17.1 walking trips per week and total weekly accelerometer/diary determined trip walking time averaged 735 min per week; much higher than reported for older adults in non-Asian settings. The most common destinations were within the neighborhood: parks and streets for recreation walking and shops and eating places for transport-related walking. Errands and eating were the most common purposes for transportation trips. The study results can help inform urban design to encourage walking.
Mary D. Walling and Joan L. Duda
This study examined the relationship of students’ goal orientation to their beliefs about what leads to success in physical education and perceptions of the purposes of physical education. High school students (N = 144,78 females and 66 males) completed a modified version of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire and measures of beliefs and perceived purposes specific to physical education class. Results indicated that students high in task orientation were significantly more likely to believe that success is achieved through intrinsic interest/effort/cooperation than were those low in task orientation. High ego-oriented students believed that success is achieved when students possess high ability more so than low ego-oriented students. The high task/low ego students were most likely to reject the notion that success in physical education occurs when students know how to use deceptive tactics and were less likely to perceive that an important function of physical education is to provide an easy class.