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Wendy A. Pethick, Holly J. Murray, Rob J. Gathercole and Gord G. Sleivert

This case study examines the longitudinal jump data of 1 male and 1 female world-class mogul skier over the course of a quadrennial leading to the 2010 Winter Olympics. Between-subjects standard deviation, smallest worthwhile enhancement, % coefficient of variance, and effect size (ES) were calculated from team jump testing taking place immediately preceding the 2010 Winter Olympics, as this was deemed the point in the quadrennial that the athlete group would be most likely near their best performance. These data were then used to characterize the progression of explosive power of elite mogul skiers over an Olympic quadrennial. Jump data for both the male and the female athlete showed trivial to large improvements in jump performance from Q1 (quadrennial year 1) to Q2, variable changes in performance from Q2 to Q4, and an overall improvement (small to large ES) from Q1 to Q4. Explosive power is a critical component of performance for moguls, and an analysis of the group data (Canadian athletes 2006–2010) shows that of all performance markers, jump testing is the variable that clearly delineates between World Cup and developmental athletes.

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Tom Willmott and Dave Collins

This study offered a first examination of skill development within freeskiing and snowboarding, using semistructured interviews to examine trick progression. Participants were purposefully recruited as performing at world top 8 level in 2014, the most recent Winter Olympic Games. A semi structured interview protocol, using a personalized progress chart, enabled the examination of trick progression across disciplines, with at least one participant from each of the events represented at the Games. Trick progression was achieved intermittently, moving through different stages during the year subject to experiencing the right conditions, training facilities, balancing time for progression with time for consolidation, competition periods and rehabilitating from injuries. There was high variance in the duration of trick progression between individuals and also high variance in the number of repetitions required to land a trick in competition. Imagery was a mental skill widely used and universally supported by our sample. Athletes and coaches should take directionality into consideration when planning their progression, ensuring all four directions are included and that prerequisite manoeuvres are included in an athlete’s training repertoire at the right stage to facilitate the learning of more complex manoeuvres at a later stage of development. Our data found a 60–40 balance between time-spent training on and off-snow, further research is required to determine the best combination of traditional strength and conditioning versus movement conditioning approaches, both from an injury prevention and a performance enhancement perspective.

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Jonathan A. Jensen and T. Bettina Cornwell

revenue generated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) during the 2008–2012 quadrennial resulted from sponsorship ( International Olympic Committee [IOC], 2016 ). Despite sponsorship’s effectiveness as an international marketing communications platform for global brands and its importance to

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Carl Foster

scientific understanding of training is grounded on the 8- to 20-week randomized controlled trial, which is so much shorter than the yearly or often quadrennial-based training plans of coaches that the scientists do not really have an appreciation of the effects of long-term periodization and thus cannot

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Kevin M. Carroll, Jake R. Bernards, Caleb D. Bazyler, Christopher B. Taber, Charles A. Stuart, Brad H. DeWeese, Kimitake Sato and Michael H. Stone

, IL : Human Kinetics ; 2007 . 26. DeWeese B , Sams M , Serrano A . Sliding toward Sochi—part 1: a review of programming tactics used during the 2010–2014 quadrennial . Natl Strength Cond Assoc Coach . 2014 ; 1 ( 3 ): 30 – 42 . 27. Kraska JM , Ramsey MW , Haff GG , et

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Milena M. Parent, Michael L. Naraine and Russell Hoye

found a professionalization of NSOs and, as such, a disappearance of the kitchen table archetype between 1984 and 1988 due to institutional pressures related to the then–federal government’s Quadrennial Planning Program and its “‘do it or you won’t get money’ stance” (cf.  Kikulis et al., 1995 ). More

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Courtney W. Hess, Stacy L. Gnacinski and Barbara B. Meyer

optimal outcomes, thereby representing a high level of person-centered care consistent with a transdisciplinary approach. In providing examples of the work in practice, the authors describe problems that arose across the course of an Olympic quadrennial and how, in response, all members of the team were

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Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish

notably surrounding the Calgary Olympics marked an inauspicious beginning for the new era in Olympic sponsorship. Documentary evidence of the IOC’s awareness of ambush marketing and its potential threat became most prominent in the planning for TOP’s second quadrennial, the 1992 Albertville and Barcelona

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Erin E. Redihan

groups and coordinate the quadrennial Olympic effort. 41 Again, as Ford acknowledged in his Sports Illustrated column, this was unprecedented in American sport and seemed vaguely communist. 42 And yet, it seemed necessary, as it represented “the middle ground between the dangers of federal control of

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Carolyn E. McEwen, Laura Hurd Clarke, Erica V. Bennett, Kimberley A. Dawson and Peter R.E. Crocker

athletes indicated that their primary goal for the 2012 season was to qualify for the Summer Olympic Games and they were implementing quadrennial training plans to be able to achieve Olympic participation. Anna, who had previously competed in an Olympic Games, explained her commitment to the 2012 Olympic