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Effective Delivery of Pressure Training: Perspectives of Athletes and Sport Psychologists

William R. Low, Joanne Butt, Paul Freeman, Mike Stoker, and Ian Maynard

Pressure training (PT) strategically increases pressure in training to prepare athletes to perform under pressure. Although research has studied how to create pressure during training, PT’s effectiveness may depend on more than creating pressure. A practitioner’s delivery of sport psychology interventions can moderate their effectiveness, so the current study explored perspectives of sport psychologists and athletes on the characteristics of effective PT delivery in applied settings. Eight international-level athletes and eight sport psychologists participated in semistructured qualitative interviews in which they described their experience participating in or conducting PT, respectively. Thematic analysis produced four themes relating to effective delivery: (a) collaboration with athletes and coaches: “with,” not “to”; (b) integration into training; (c) upfront transparency; and (d) promoting learning before and after PT. The themes provide guidance for planning, conducting, and following up on PT sessions in applied settings. The best practices discussed could increase athletes’ receptiveness to PT.

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“Not Ready to Throw in the Towel”: Perceptions of Physical Activity Held by Older Adults in Stockholm and Dublin

Breiffni Leavy and Anna Cristina Åberg

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe the perceptions of physical activity held by older urban Swedish and Irish adults. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 30 people age 65 years and older (mean age 74.5), of whom 15 were living in Dublin and 15 were living in Stockholm. The “thematic framework” approach was used to analyze the data. Three central themes were identified regarding people’s perceptions of physical activity: physical activity as self-expression, physical activity as interaction, and physical activity as health promotion. Participants’ perceptions of physical activity tended to relate to their perceived level of physical activity, regardless of their cultural background. Certain culture-specific motivators and barriers to exercise were also identified. Less active Irish men were more likely to underestimate the health-promoting benefits of exercise.

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Exploring Recall of Physical Activity in Young People Using Qualitative Interviewing

James McKenna, Lucy Jane Foster, and Angela Page

Recall of physical activity is a known problem affecting all forms of self-report. Participants age 8–16 years contributed to 16 focus groups and 24 interviews based on cognitive interviewing (n = 8) and think-aloud (n = 8) and general probing (n = 8) techniques. When unassisted, participants readily described physical activity mode but gave vague descriptions of daily activities. In contrast, the close detail of frequency, intensity, and duration of these activities was only more fully developed through prompting. Talk-based methods can provide considerable insight into developing more reliable and valid physical activity self-reports.

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Medicalization of Exercise Through Vigilance, Productivity, and Self-Care: A Secondary Data Analysis of Qualitative Interviews Among Those With Multiple Sclerosis

Brynn Adamson, Matthew Adamson, Dominique Kinnett-Hopkins, and Robert Motl

Exercise is becoming more integrated into the management of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is promoted to manage impairments and symptoms. Whereas extensive research outlines factors impacting participation, less is known regarding how medicalized exercise promotion might impact views of exercise and self. We conducted a secondary data analysis to understand how medicalized exercise-promotion paradigms impact the meaning and roles of exercise among those with MS. Twenty-two interviews were selected for reanalysis with an interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology and a critical disability studies lens. Three themes were identified: Constant Vigilance (worry about exercise), Productivity and Social Engagement (exercise to feel productive, engage socially, and enhance self-worth), and Exercise as Medicine/Self-Care (exercise to manage MS, relax, improve mental well-being, prevent/reverse disability, and stay healthy). This research underscores that exercise occupies many contradictory roles reflecting a medicalized exercise-promotion paradigm for those with MS, and this should inform exercise promotion practices.

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Physical Education Teachers’ Swimming Skill Analysis in 6- to 12-Year-Old Children: Findings From an Online Survey

Inga Fokken, Ilka Staub, and Tobias Vogt

arrive at their judgment. Only on the basis of an accurate swimming skill analysis, it is possible to design swimming lessons for students with different swimming skills and to enable learning growth. Methods A two-step approach was chosen for data collection. A prestudy using qualitative interviews was

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Formative Development of a Technology-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Grandparents and Grandchildren

Marissa A. Kobayashi, Sara M. St. George, Rafael O. Leite, Blanca Noriega Esquives, Rachel Wetstone, Elizabeth R. Pulgaron, Guillermo Prado, and Sara J. Czaja

participating in a physical activity program that involved your grandchild?”) with Likert-type response options ( very interested to not interested ). Qualitative Interview Questions and Intervention Prototype Evaluation The 12 participants selected for the qualitative interviews were asked to respond to a

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Gender Parity, False Starts, and Promising Practices in the Paralympic Movement

Nikolaus A. Dean, Andrea Bundon, P. David Howe, and Natalie Abele

with disabilities have been undervalued and discriminated against within disability sport and offer information that can be used to better inform sporting strategies moving forward. Methods We employed document analysis and qualitative interviews to help answer the project’s overarching research

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It’s Not Just Physical: Exercise Physiologist-Led Exercise Program Promotes Functional and Psychosocial Health Outcomes in Aged Care

Annette J. Raynor, Fiona Iredale, Robert Crowther, Jane White, and Julie Dare

limit transferability of findings to RAC facilities with more culturally diverse populations. In addition, the relatively small sample sizes for the qualitative interviews with different categories of informant limits generalization of the results beyond this study. However, qualitative studies aim for

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Chapter 4: Studying Recruitment and Retention in PETE: Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods

K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, Kim C. Graber, and Ben D. Kern

collected through an online survey, which was subsequently used to inform the development of a qualitative interview guide. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and qualitative data were examined using a combination of inductive and deductive analysis. In the

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Supports and Barriers to Home-Based Physical Activity During Preoperative Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer: A Mixed-Methods Study

Nathan H. Parker, Rebecca E. Lee, Daniel P. O’Connor, An Ngo-Huang, Maria Q.B. Petzel, Keri Schadler, Xuemei Wang, Lianchun Xiao, David Fogelman, Richard Simpson, Jason B. Fleming, Jeffrey E. Lee, Ching-Wei D. Tzeng, Sunil K. Sahai, Karen Basen-Engquist, and Matthew H.G. Katz

); informational (eg, improving one’s understanding of safe and effective physical activity); or instrumental (eg, providing transportation or companionship). 22 , 23 Studies using both surveys and qualitative interviews have established the importance of social support for physical activity among older adults 24