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John Williams and Shane Pill

approach to quality physical education (QPE) that includes a cultural perspective that differs from our own Western heritage. In designing this unit of work, we aligned our teaching to the Australian Curriculum for Health and Physical Education (AC-HPE; Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting

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Wiyun Chen, Andrew J. Hypnar, Steve A. Mason, Sandy Zalmout and Austin Hammond-Benett

The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 1111) in year one, n = 1012 in year 2). The student’s daily PA minutes were assessed using a 7-day PA log. The PE teachers’ levels of QPET were assessed by coding 63 videotaped lessons (Mlessons/teacher = 7.03, SD = .74) using the Assessing Quality Teaching rubrics (AQTR), which consisted of four essential dimensions including Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Response. Codes were confirmed through interrater reliability (82.4%, 84.5%, 94%). Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, multiple R-squared regression models, and independent sample t tests. The results indicated that the overall QPET practices (R = .126, R 2 = .02, F = 32.387, Sig.= .000, P < .01) and all four essential dimensions (R = .127, R 2 = .02, F = 8.560, Sig.= .000, P < .01) were significant contributors to students’ student daily PA behaviors. These predictors were significantly higher in girls (R = .157, R 2 = .03, F = 6.15, Sig.= .000, P < .01) than boys (R = .113, R 2 = .01, F = 3.57, Sig.= .007, P < .01). The Instructional Response was a significant predictor of PA among girls (β = .12, t = 2,068, Sig. = .039, P < .05 level), but not boys. Further, students’ who experienced high QPET were significantly more physically active than those students who did not have this experience (t = 4.334, df = 2089, Sig. = .000, P < .01). It was concluded that the QPET practices played a critical role in promoting students’ daily PA engagement in and outside of schools.

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Keven A. Prusak, Todd Pennington, Susan Vincent Graser, Aaron Beighle and Charles F. Morgan

Siedentop and Locke (1997) proposed three critical elements that must exist in our profession to make a difference and achieve systemic success in physical education (SSPE): (a) quality PE in the schools, (b) effective physical education teacher education (PETE) programs, and (c) a working relationship between the two. Using Cuban’s (1992) curriculum change and stability framework, this qualitative study examines the existence of a program that has achieved all three elements in the southwestern US. For over three decades some seventy-two teachers in dozens of schools have yearly served over 40,000 children. This study revealed a fully functioning model consisting of four key, interdependent components driven by a system of accountability measures. The results of the SSPE model—quality PE for children—is achieved by (a) district-wide mandated curriculum, methodologies and language, (b) well-defined district PE coordinator roles, (c) a partnership university, and (d) frequent, ongoing professional development. Results of this study strengthen Siedentop and Locke’s (1997) recommendation for collaborative efforts between universities and partner school districts and provide a model to guide and manage the curriculum change process in K-6 PE.

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Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Kim C. Graber, Amelia M. Woods, Tom Templin, Mike Metzler and Naiman A. Khan

collaborated with Society of Health and Physical Educators America to develop and promote a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) as a mechanism for increasing physical activity opportunities for students. The CSPAP model comprised five integral components: quality physical education, before

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Ben D. Kern, Suzan F. Ayers, Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods

at seemingly all colleges and universities experience. It may also be advisable for PETE faculty members to make efforts to promote the recruitment of PETE students who are more academically prepared and have dispositions more aligned with high-quality physical education. This approach may limit the

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Thomas L. McKenzie, Kathryn J. LaMaster, James F. Sallis and Simon J. Marshall

The relationship of classroom teachers’ leisure time physical activity and their conduct of physical education classes was investigated. Eighteen 4th- and 5th-grade teachers reported on their leisure physical activity and had their physical education classes observed systematically during 4 consecutive semesters. Correlational analyses confirmed that more active teachers taught physical education differently from those that were less active. Teachers who were more active provided students with increased physical fitness activities, and the teachers themselves spent more time promoting physical fitness during lessons. The study provides some support for the hypothesis that physically active teachers provide higher quality physical education.

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Bryan A. McCullick, Thomas Baker, Phillip D. Tomporowski, Thomas J. Templin, Karen Lux and Tiffany Isaac

The purpose of this study was to analyze state school-based physical education (SBPE) policies’ text and the resulting legal implications. A textualist approach to the legal method of Statutory Interpretation framed the data analysis. Findings revealed the difficulty of determining with clarity a majority of PE statutes and it is probable that based on current wording, courts could not play a role in interpreting these statutes, thus leaving interpretation to educational authorities. Significant variability of how authorities interpret statutes increases the challenge of consistent interpretation or adherence to the NASPE Guidelines for Quality Physical Education and whether meaningful policy study can be conducted to determine if SBPE makes an impact.

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Thomas L. McKenzie, John E. Alcaraz, James F. Sallis and F. Nell Faucette

We assessed effects of a physical education professional development program on 3 manipulative skills of 4th- and 5th-graders. Seven schools were randomly assigned to 3 treatment conditions: PES (Physical Education Specialists), TT (Trained Classroom Teachers), and CO (Controls). Students (358 boys, 351 girls) were randomly selected from 56 classes and tested on throwing, catching, and kicking. In the fall baseline, boys scored higher than girls; 5th-graders scored higher than 4th-graders. In the spring, children in PES schools had improvements of 21%; those in TT and CO schools gained 19% and 13%, respectively. Gain scores were significant for catching (p = .005) and throwing (p = .008). Intervention effects did not differ by gender or grade. Adjusting for condition, boys made significantly greater gains than girls. The results indicate that children’s manipulative skills can be improved by quality physical education programs delivered by PE specialists and classroom teachers with substantial training.

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Roy J. Shephard and François Trudeau

This article looks retrospectively at lessons learned from the Trois-Rivières physical education study. A brief review of the experimental design shows 546 students assigned by class cohort to either an additional 5 hours of quality physical education per week in grades 1 through 6, or a control treatment (minimal physical education by the homeroom teacher). Strengths of the study include a quasi-experimental design, a prolonged and well-defined intervention, assessment of compensation for the program, continuation of observations into middle age, collection of data in urban and rural environments, consistency of teaching staff and technical personnel, documentation of changes in academic achievement, assessment of bone maturation, a carefully constructed database, and control for cross-contamination. Limitations include some secular change, limited information on pubertal stages, difficulty in generalizing findings to an English-speaking environment, and some rigidity in the statistical design. The study demonstrates that cardiorespiratory function, muscle strength, and field performance can all be enhanced in primary school with no negative impact on academic work. Further, attitudes, behavior, and function are favorably influenced in adults. Future studies should seek out stable populations, define interventions closely, contract with participants for a long-term follow-up, and assess the immediate and long-term impact on health and function. Above all, there is a need for a dedicated principal investigator who will devote his or her entire career to the longitudinal study.

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Susan K. Lynn and Amelia Mays Woods

The Fessler and Christensen (1992) teacher career cycle model provides the theoretical framework for this case study incorporating a narrative design nested within a larger research project examining six teachers’ journey across the career cycle (Woods & Earls, 1995; Woods & Lynn, 2001). The current case study sought to gain a greater understanding of why one teacher, Patsy, was unable to negotiate environmental hurdles that are commonplace in physical education and how these factors were being negotiated as a classroom teacher. Data sources included: seven interviews with the participant, multiple interviews with her principals, spouse, and three former university teacher educators, field notes from live lesson observations, and related documents. An interpretative framework was used to understand the perceptions and meanings Patsy gave to her experiences and revealed that she reported being both positively and negatively affected by most of the personal and organizational environmental factors in the teacher career cycle model. Viewing Patsy’s teaching career through the lens of the career cycle provides insight into areas of change necessary to motivate and retain quality physical education teachers.