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Rebecca K. Tanner and Christopher J. Gore

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Philippa M. Dall, Dawn A. Skelton, Manon L. Dontje, Elaine H. Coulter, Sally Stewart, Simon R. Cox, Richard J. Shaw, Iva Čukić, Claire F. Fitzsimons, Carolyn A. Greig, Malcolm H. Granat, Geoff Der, Ian J. Deary, Sebastien F.M. Chastin, and On behalf of the Seniors USP Team

:// ) implemented a coherent package, which aimed to maximize both the volume and utility of the data collected. The key characteristics of the protocol were enabling 24-hour wear, minimizing data loss, and quality assurance. These key characteristics, along with details of the methods

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Thiago Oliveira Borges, Nicola Bullock, David Aitken, and Aaron J. Coutts


This study compared 3 commercially available ergometers for within- and between-brands difference to a first-principle calibration rig.


All ergometers underestimated true mean power, with errors of 27.6% ± 3.7%, 4.5% ± 3.5%, and 22.5% ± 1.9% for the KayakPro, WEBA, and Dansprint, respectively. Within-brand ergometer power differences ranged from 17 ± 9 to 22 ± 11 W for the KayakPro, 3 ± 4 to 4 ± 4 W for the WEBA, and 5 ± 3 to 5 ± 4 W for the Dansprint. The linear-regression analysis showed that most kayak ergometers have a stable coefficient of variation (0.9–1.7%) with a moderate effect size.


Taken collectively, these findings show that different ergometers present inconsistent outcomes. Therefore, we suggest that athlete testing be conducted on the same ergometer brand, preferably the same ergometer. Optimally, that ergometer should be calibrated using a first-principle device before any athlete testing block.

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Gerard L. Hanley

A framework to advance and sustain the American Kinesiology Association community's capabilities to put educational innovations into practice through the use of MERLOT's open educational services and resources ( is presented through the metaphor of a folk tale, Stone Soup. The American Kinesiology Association can use MERLOT's free and open library services to build a quality collection of peer-reviewed instructional materials in kinesiology, design a custom “teaching commons” website for their community to share exemplary practices, use MERLOT Voices online community platform to enable asynchronous discussions and collaborations, and create new open educational resources with MERLOT's Content Builder tool. Leveraging the California State University's Course Redesign with Technology program and the Quality Online Learning and Teaching (QOLT) project can become part of the American Kinesiology Association's strategy as well.

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Hans Vangrunderbeek and Hans Ponnet

every sport. VTS also plays a prominent role in quality assurance of coach developers and other administrators. For example, since 1999, it has been mandatory for all Technical Coordinators of subsidised sports federations to have a master’s degree in physical education and the highest possible VTS

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Gwendolyn M. Weatherford, Betty A. Block, and Fredrick L. Wagner

; marketization; competition; and quality assurance and assessment). The aim of this work sought to offer new perspectives and to encourage sport leaders to more fervently engage in solutions-oriented discourse relative to the complex, universal challenges facing our world today and their impact on opportunities

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Frank I. Katch

A recent government report from the General Accounting Office concludes that some Handbook 8 nutritional data have so little documentation on how the data were produced that it is possible some nutrient values are not reliable, and that HNIS does not appropriately direct the generation of food composition data under its contracted laboratory studies. The report recommends that the Secretary of Agriculture direct the HNIS administrator to develop (a) specific quality assurance criteria for HNIS staff to use in evaluating food composition data obtained from others before the data are included in Handbook 8, and (b) procedures to better direct the generation of food composition data under HNIS' contracts.

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Wim Derave and Kevin D. Tipton

Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

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Michael W. Churton

Development of personnel preparation programs has focused upon a progressive trend away from a strict adherence to a physical education philosophy to a philosophy that stresses more of a multidisciplinary approach. Early obstacles experienced by directors of personnel preparation programs included legislation, program development, and a limited body of knowledge. Future considerations include directors with varied educational backgrounds and a national movement toward quality education. Teacher training programs will need to redefine their curriculum offerings in adapted physical education to address quality assurance requirements. Future programs in adapted physical education will need to become more field based and address functional competencies that will prepare students to meet the psychomotor needs of handicapped children effectively.

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Dimitrios Kolyperas, Christos Anagnostopoulos, Simon Chadwick, and Leigh Sparks

Despite the increasing number and significance of charitable foundations in various business sectors, their role in cocreating corporate social responsibility (CSR) value remains unclear. This paper identifies CSR value cocreation in professional team sport organizations (PTSOs) and answers three key research questions: (a) Why have PTSOs developed charitable foundations as their means toward CSR value cocreation? (b) What CSR-related resources do PTSOs and their charitable foundations integrate? and (c) How do they manage, share, and transfer such resources to cocreate CSR value? Drawing theoretical insights from service dominant logic and consumer culture theory—and using empirical data from 47 semistructured interviews of UK-based professional football (soccer) clubs—this study develops a communicating vessels framework to illustrate the role of charitable foundations in the CSR value cocreation process. Through four tentative CSR value cocreation levels of relationship (bolt-on, cooperative, controlled, and strategic) the study suggests several internal strategies that can enhance the level of collaboration between founders and foundations. These include information sharing through customer relationship management (CRM) systems and social media platforms; staff sharing or flexible movement across the organizations; quality assurance agreements; flexible team cooperation; partnership protocols with social, media, cultural, and commercial stakeholders; and cotraining of personnel.