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Markus Schäfer and Catharina Vögele

happening in the field and on the other hand, it can inspire future research and new generations of researchers. In principle, content analyses in sport communication can follow either a quantitative or a qualitative research logic and focus, for example, on different research topics, communication material

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, Kim C. Graber, and Ben D. Kern

coordinators’ perceptions of preservice physical education teacher recruitment and retention. A sequential explanatory design was employed, whereby quantitative and qualitative data are presented in sequence to better understand a phenomenon ( Creswell, Plano Clark, Gutmann, & Hanson, 2003 ). Specifically, a

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Andrew Miller

The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the weight of scientific evidence regarding student outcomes (physical, cognitive and affective) of a Game Centered Approach (GCA) when the quality of a study was taken into account in the interpretation of collective findings. A systematic search of five electronic databases (Sports Discuss, ERIC, A+ Education, PsychInfo and PROQUEST Education) was conducted from their year of inception to 30 January 2014. Included studies were longitudinal or experimental/quasi-experimental studies involving children or adolescents that quantitatively assessed (using repeat measures and/or comparison with a control group) the effects upon student outcomes when an intervention involved the use of a GCA. The search identified 15 articles examining the effects of GCA on student outcomes that met the criteria for inclusion. The weight of evidence provided by the included studies identified an association between a GCA and the outcomes of declarative knowledge, support during game play and affective outcomes of perceived competence, interest/enjoyment and effort/importance. Development of technical skill, procedural knowledge and game play skills of decision making and skill execution are not supported by the level of evidence currently provided. Intervention volume appears to have a large effect on the development of game based decision making and skill execution, with a positive association between these outcomes and use of GCA interventions greater than eight hours in volume. More longitudinal and intervention research examining the use of a GCA and potential psychological, physiological and behavioral outcomes in children and adolescents is recommended.

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Ana Torres-Costoso, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Asunción Ferri-Morales, Iván Cavero-Redondo, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaino, and Luis Gracia-Marco

bone outcomes. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement is considered a valid, safe, easy-to-use, portable, cost-effective, cheaper than DXA, and radiation-free method to assess bone health ( 1 ). The calcaneus site is the most frequent measurement site due to its trabecular content and accessibility

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Richard A. Preuss and Milos R. Popovic

This study defines the limits of stability in sitting, and quantitatively assesses two measures of postural control relative to these limits. Young, healthy subjects sat, feet unsupported, on an elevated force plate. The limits of stability were determined by a least square fit of an ellipse to the center of pressure (CoP) excursion during maximal leaning in 8 directions. These were highly symmetrical and centered within the base of support. The ellipses had a mean eccentricity of 0.66 (major axis in the sagittal plane) and covered an area approx. 1/3 of the base of support. The CoP was then monitored over 4 min of quiet sitting, during which the postural sway covered an area <0.05% of the limits of stability and was closely centered within the latter. Finally, target-directed trunk movements were performed, in 5 directions, at 4 movement speeds and 3 target distances. Increased target distance and movement speed both decreased the margin of stability (distance between the CoP and the limits of stability), as did movement in the frontal plane, reflecting the eccentricity of the limits of stability. These combined findings support the validity of this quantitative method of defining the limits of stability in sitting, for healthy individuals.

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Leah K. May, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Stefanie A. Wind

in the interpretive paradigm and employed a variety of qualitative methods ( Curtner-Smith et al., 2018 ). Studies that gathered and compared both quantitative and qualitative data have produced mixed results. Specifically, in some studies, VOI scores and qualitative data have been congruent ( Patton

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Bernardino J. Sánchez-Alcaraz, Alberto Gómez-Mármol, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, and Javier Courel-Ibáñez

disruptive behaviors. To this purpose, Hemphill et al. ( 2015 ) suggested the use of systematic observations both for peer evaluations and as a reflection tool. In addition, a recent systematic review highlights the need for further research examining larger samples and using quantitative methodological

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Brian Morin and Greg Reid

Previous descriptions of the motor performance of autistic persons have often confounded autism and mental retardation. Therefore, this study compared high functioning autistic individuals to functionally retarded subjects matched closely on chronological age and measured intelligence. Quantitative and qualitative scores for balance, throwing, catching, jumping, and running test items were obtained in a formal testing situation. Also, for autistic subjects, the relationship between qualitative performance on the formal test items and the quality of motor patterns elicited during guided play was determined. It was concluded that the selected test items generally represented reliable indices of the motor performance of autistic persons and that performance during formal testing essentially mirrored that of guided play. While there was some trend toward inferior qualitative scores by autistic individuals compared to their matched counterparts, there were no meaningful quantitative differences between the groups. It is possible that the poor motor performance associated with autism is largely a factor of mental retardation.

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Sakiko Oyama, Araceli Sosa, Rebekah Campbell, and Alexandra Correa

Video recordings are used to quantitatively analyze pitchers’ techniques. However, reliability and validity of such analysis is unknown. The purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability and validity of joint and segment angles identified during a pitching motion using video analysis. Thirty high school baseball pitchers participated. The pitching motion was captured using 2 high-speed video cameras and a motion capture system. Two raters reviewed the videos to digitize the body segments to calculate 2-dimensional angles. The corresponding 3-dimensional angles were calculated from the motion capture data. Intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and validity of the 2-dimensional angles were determined. The intrarater and interrater reliability of the 2-dimensional angles were high for most variables. The trunk contralateral flexion at maximum external rotation was the only variable with high validity. Trunk contralateral flexion at ball release, trunk forward flexion at foot contact and ball release, shoulder elevation angle at foot contact, and maximum shoulder external rotation had moderate validity. Two-dimensional angles at the shoulder, elbow, and trunk could be measured with high reliability. However, the angles are not necessarily anatomically correct, and thus use of quantitative video analysis should be limited to angles that can be measured with good validity.

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John C. Spence, Kerry R. McGannon, and Pauline Poon

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively review the body of research on exercise and global self-esteem (GSE). This review focuses specifically on studies using adults and also incorporates both published and unpublished works. Computer and manual searches identified 113 studies matching the selection criteria. Each study was coded according to 20 study features. A total of 128 effect sizes (d) were derived. As indicated by effect-size magnitude, participation in exercise brought about a small change in GSE (d = +0.23). Change in physical fitness and type of program were significant moderators of the effect of exercise on GSE. Larger effect sizes were observed for those who experienced significant changes in physical fitness and those participating in exercise or lifestyle programs as opposed to skills training.