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Jo-Ana D. Chase, Lorraine J. Phillips, and Marybeth Brown

The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supervised resistance and/or aerobic training physical activity interventions on performance-based measures of physical functioning among community-dwelling older adults, and to identify factors impacting intervention effectiveness. Diverse search strategies were used to identify eligible studies. Standardized mean difference effect sizes (d, ES) were synthesized using a random effects model. Moderator analyses were conducted using subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Twenty-eight studies were included. Moderator analyses were limited by inconsistent reporting of sample and intervention characteristics. The overall mean ES was 0.45 (k = 38, p ≤ .01), representing a clinically meaningful reduction of 0.92 s in the Timed Up and Go for treatment versus control. More minutes per week (p < .01) and longer intervention session duration (p < .01) were associated with larger effects. Interventions were especially effective among frail participants (d = 1.09). Future research should clearly describe sample and intervention characteristics and incorporate frail populations.

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Iván Cuyul-Vásquez, Eliana Álvarez, Ariel Riquelme, Rocio Zimmermann, and Felipe Araya-Quintanilla

Context: Unilateral training of the uninjured limb could be a useful therapeutic tool to induce cross-education in periods of immobilization, however, the effectiveness of this training in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is unknown. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of unilateral training of the uninjured limb on muscle strength and knee function in patients with ACL reconstruction. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic search was performed in the MEDLINE, LILACS, CENTRAL, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro databases from inception until March 2021. The authors included randomized clinical trials that evaluated the effectiveness of unilateral training of the uninjured limb on muscle strength and knee function in patients after ACL reconstruction. Evidence Synthesis: Seven clinical trials met the eligibility criteria, and for the quantitative synthesis, 5 studies were included. The standardized mean difference for isometric quadriceps strength was 0.60 at 8 to 12 weeks (95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 0.92; P = .01; I 2 = 6%). There was a high quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation rating. Four studies assessed knee function through different self-administered questionnaires at 8, 24, and 26 weeks. Only one study reported significant differences in knee function at 8 weeks, favoring the unilateral training group. Conclusions: There was a moderate to high quality of evidence, with statistical significance that the addition of unilateral training to standard rehabilitation improved the cross-education of quadriceps strength after ACL reconstruction. More research is needed to assess the consistency of these results. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews registration number: CRD42020199950.

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Noemi Moreno-Segura, Celedonia Igual-Camacho, Yéntel Ballester-Gil, María Clara Blasco-Igual, and Jose María Blasco

a review. One was a long-term observational study from the original work of Bird, Hill, and Fell ( 2012 ). Fifteen studies were included in the qualitative synthesis; all RCTs were written in the English language. Ultimately, 11 studies were included in the quantitative synthesis with meta

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Heon Jin Kang, Chee Keng John Wang, and Stephen Francis Burns

.3390/ijerph7030784 Ma , H. ( 2006 ). An alternative method for quantitative synthesis of single-subject researches: Percentage of data points exceeding the median . Behavior Modification, 30 ( 5 ), 598 – 617 . PubMed ID: 16894232 10.1177/0145445504272974 Mailey

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Nathanial J. Kapsal, Theresa Dicke, Alexandre J.S. Morin, Diego Vasconcellos, Christophe Maïano, Jane Lee, and Chris Lonsdale

the first quantitative synthesis of a broad range of health outcomes associated with physical activity among youth with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the existing research related to the physical health and psychosocial health outcomes of physical activity for

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Avril Johnstone, Paul McCrorie, Rita Cordovil, Ingunn Fjørtoft, Susanna Iivonen, Boris Jidovtseff, Frederico Lopes, John J. Reilly, Hilary Thomson, Valerie Wells, and Anne Martin

results of the quantitative synthesis. However, these themes were considered for generating a hypothesis on how or why observed quantitative results occurred. Findings from the quantitative synthesis suggested that some aspects of motor competence, such as balance, are better in children attending nature

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Sarah J. Wherry, Cheryl Der Ananian, and Pamela D. Swan

– 188 . PubMed ID: 18091006 doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e31815a51b3 18091006 10.1249/mss.0b013e31815a51b3 4. Dishman RK , Buckworth J . Increasing physical activity: a quantitative synthesis . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1996 ; 28 ( 6 ): 706 – 719 . PubMed ID: 8784759 doi:10

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Mike Pryzbek, Julie Richardson, Lehana Thabane, and Ada Tang

quantitative synthesis . Physical Therapy, 97 ( 7 ), 707 – 717 . PubMed ID: 28444348 doi:10.1093/ptj/pzx038 10.1093/ptj/pzx038 Flynn , M.G. , & McFarlin , B.K. ( 2006 ). Toll-like receptor 4: Link to the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise? Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 34 ( 4 ), 176

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Uri Gottlieb and Shmuel Springer

, Poolman RW , Denaro V . Surgical versus nonoperative treatment in patients up to 18 years old with traumatic shoulder instability: a systematic review and quantitative synthesis of the literature . Arthroscopy . 2016 ; 32 ( 5 ): 944 – 952 . PubMed ID: 26921126 doi:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.10.020 10

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Paul Mackie, Gary Crowfoot, Prajwal Gyawali, Heidi Janssen, Elizabeth Holliday, David Dunstan, and Coralie English

.3945/ajcn.112.051763 38. Fini NA , Holland AE , Keating J , Simek J , Bernhardt J . How physically active are people following stroke? Systematic review and quantitative synthesis . Phys Ther . 2017 ; 97 ( 7 ): 707 – 717 . PubMed ID: 28444348 doi:10.1093/ptj/pzx038 28444348 10.1093/ptj