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Aurora de Fátima G.C. Mafra Cabral, Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro, Charlles H.M. Castro, Marco Túlio De Mello, Sérgio Tufik, and Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld

among the objective methods more currently used to measure physical activity ( Kolt, 2013 ). On the other hand, questionnaires have been used to subjectively estimate physical activity, especially due to their convenience and low cost ( Dollman et al., 2009 ). As a limitation, questionnaires may vary

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Minna Aittasalo, Matti Pasanen, Mikael Fogelholm, and Katriina Ojala


To examine the validity and repeatability of a short leisure time physical activity (LTPA) questionnaire during pregnancy.


Seventy-nine women with uncomplicated pregnancies and weeks’ gestation ≤ 33 participated. After the first questionnaire (LTPAQ1) they entered 7-day LTPA and pedometer counts in a logbook and completed the second LTPA questionnaire (LTPAQ2). Validity was assessed with Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients by comparing LTPAQ2 with pedometer counts and logbook. For describing repeatability, change in the mean, geometric mean ratio, typical error, coefficient of variation (CV, %) and Bland-Altman plots were used.


Forty-five (57%) and 47 (59%) women were available for pedometer and logbook comparisons and 49 (62%) for repeatability assessment. LTPAQ2 showed no correlation with pedometer but moderate correlation with the logbook for the frequency of moderate to vigorous-intensity LTPA (rs = 0.68, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.81). In repeatability, the typical error for frequency estimates varied from 1.2 to 3.7 sessions and CV for duration from 119 to 369%. The corresponding values for systematic error were -1.0 to 0.3 sessions and 4 to 36%. The 95% limits of agreement for single variables were large.


The questionnaire was valid for assessing moderate to vigorous-intensity LTPA but its individual repeatability proved weak.

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Esra Uzelpasaci, Türkan Akbayrak, Serap Özgül, Ceren Orhan, Emine Baran, Gülbala Nakip, Sinan Beksac, and Semra Topuz

. The measurement of physical activity is usually performed by subjective methods such as questionnaire and exercise diary or by objective methods such as accelerometer or pedometer. 7 – 9 However, objective measuring devices are relatively costly, and these devices are insufficient to measure

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Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta, and Mikael Fogelholm

nutrition knowledge among athletes and coaches ( Heaney et al., 2011 ; Spronk et al., 2014 ; Trakman et al., 2016 ). Nutrition knowledge should be evaluated using validated instruments designed for the target population ( Parmenter & Wardle, 2000 ). An inadequately validated questionnaire with a narrow

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Boris Dugonjić, Saša Krstulović, and Goran Kuvačić

(all males) from eight European countries. This investigation was conducted during World Association of Kickboxing Organizations Senior European Kickboxing Championships 2018 held in Bratislava where athletes were recruited to answer a questionnaire regarding prevalence, magnitude, and methods of RWL

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Michael J. Shoemaker, Michaela Mattern, Hannah Scholten, Jessica Zeitler, and Shweta Gore

7 studies covering 9 self-report questionnaires estimating METs, EE, or other measures of PA. The authors observed that the included studies did not exclusively or even primarily include African American women with coronary heart disease and concluded that reliability was understudied (only 3

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Wolf E. Mehling

). Possibly in part due to the prominence of its author and his polyvagal theory among body-oriented psychotherapists, and despite that fact that his highly popular theory has been seriously questioned, if not thoroughly debunked ( Grossman, 2016 ; Grossman & Deuring, 2020 ), Porges’s questionnaire is still

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Martin C. Waller, Deborah A. Kerr, Martyn J. Binnie, Emily Eaton, Clare Wood, Terreen Stenvers, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Carmel Goodman, and Kagan J. Ducker

)  Winter sports 1 (1) 1 (100) 0 (0)  Weightlifting 1 (1) 1 (100) 0 (0)  Triathlon 1 (1) 1 (100) 0 (0)  Trampoline 1 (1) 1 (100) 0 (0)  Cycling—BMX 1 (1) 1 (100) 0 (0)  Boxing 1 (1) 1 (100) 0 (0) Sport category, n (%)  Team 52 (55) 46 (89) 6 (11)  Individual 42 (45) 36 (86) 6 (14) Questionnaire Athletes

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Oliver Vogel, Daniel Niederer, Jan Wilke, Maike Steinmann, and Lutz Vogt

reason for the lack of lifetime activity data may possibly be the dependence on erroneous self-reporting. Besides memorization and social desirability, estimation errors possibly represent the greatest bias in physical activity questionnaires. In the comparison of subjective and objective measures of

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Sérgio M. Querido, João Brito, Pedro Figueiredo, Filomena Carnide, João R. Vaz, and Sandro R. Freitas

decade, several studies have examined recovery methods in teams sports using questionnaires based on athletes’ perception 12 – 15 and on professionals in charge of athletes’ postmatch recovery. 2 , 3 , 16 , 17 Among these studies, only 3 were conducted exclusively with elite football teams 2 , 16 , 17