) contextual characteristics (coach, organization, type of sport, family, time in season), and (c) consultant characteristics (training, competencies, style) ( Vealey & Garner-Holman, 1998 ). Although methods of assessment in sport psychology include questionnaires/inventories, interviews/discussion, observation, and
Robin S. Vealey, Robin Cooley, Emma Nilsson, Carly Block, and Nick Galli
Raymonde E. Jean, Manideep Duttuluri, Charlisa D. Gibson, Sadaf Mir, Katherine Fuhrmann, Edward Eden, and Azhar Supariwala
Exercise improves sleep quality, yet people with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may engage in less physical activity (PA) due to fatigue and daytime sleepiness. We examined changes in PA and sleep quality before and after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in OSA patients.
In this prospective longitudinal study, persons with a primary diagnosis of OSA were enrolled at a community-based hospital in New York City. At 3 time intervals pre- and post-CPAP (3–8 months), we measured sleep quality using validated questionnaires, perceived PA using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and actual PA using pedometer steps per day. We sought to investigate how CPAP use and changes in sleep quality impacted the number of steps taken, as recorded in pedometer steps.
In total, 62 patients were enrolled in the study from March 2012 to July 2014. In all, patients averaged 53 years of age, and 26 patients (42%) were female. Among all participants, 86% of persons had moderate to severe sleep apnea (AHI ≥15). Approximately 73% of participants were compliant with CPAP use. Poor sleep quality correlated with lower actual PA (P = .004) at baseline. At 3 and 7 months, there was significant improvement in sleep quality (Δ –2.63 ± 3.4 and Δ –3.5 ± 3.8; P < .001) and actual PA (Δ 840 ± 1313 and Δ 1431 ± 1419 steps/day, P < .001) compared with baseline. On multivariate analyses, participants with a higher waist circumference had a significantly greater increase in actual PA (P = .018).
Treatment of OSA with CPAP had a progressive incremental improvement in sleep quality and actual PA.
William L. Haskell
For the scientific domain of physical activity and public health research to advance its agenda of health promotion and disease prevention continued development of measurement methodologies is essential. Over the past 50 years most data supporting a favorable relationship between habitual physical activity and chronic disease morbidity and mortality have been obtained using self-report methods, including questionnaires, logs, recalls, and diaries. Many of these instruments have been shown to have reasonable validity and reliability for determining general type, amount, intensity, and bout duration, but typically do better for groups than individuals with some instruments lacking the sensitivity to detect change in activity. During the past decade the objective assessment of physical activity using accelerometer-based devices has demonstrated substantial potential, especially in documenting the pattern of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity activity throughout the day. However, these devices do not provide information on activity type, location or context. Research that combines the strengths of both self-report and objective measures has the potential to provide new insights into the benefits of physical activity and how to implement successful interventions.
Pedro C. Hallal, Luis Fernando Gomez, Diana C. Parra, Felipe Lobelo, Janeth Mosquera, Alex A. Florindo, Rodrigo S. Reis, Michael Pratt, and Olga L. Sarmiento
To describe the lessons learned after 10 years of use of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in Brazil and Colombia, with special emphasis on recommendations for future research in Latin America using this instrument.
We present an analytical commentary, based on data from a review of the Latin American literature, as well as expert consultation and the authors' experience in administering IPAQ to over 43,000 individuals in Brazil and Colombia between 1998 and 2008.
Validation studies in Latin America suggest that the IPAQ has high reliability and moderate criteria validity in comparison with accelerometers. Cognitive interviews suggested that the occupational and housework sections of the long IPAQ lead to confusion among respondents, and there is evidence that these sections generate overestimated scores of physical activity. Because the short IPAQ considers the 4 physical activity domains altogether, people tend to provide inaccurate answers to it as well.
Use of the leisure-time and transport sections of the long IPAQ is recommended for surveillance and studies aimed at documenting physical activity levels in Latin America. Use of the short IPAQ should be avoided, except for maintaining consistency in surveillance when it has already been used at baseline.
Heather K. Neilson, Ruth Ullman, Paula J. Robson, Christine M. Friedenreich, and Ilona Csizmadi
The qualitative attributes and quantitative measurement properties of physical activity questionnaires are equally important considerations in questionnaire appraisal, yet fundamental aspects such as question comprehension are not often described in the literature. Here we describe the use of cognitive interviewing to evaluate the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess overall activity energy expenditure and sedentary behavior.
Several rounds of one-on-one interviews were conducted by an interviewer trained in qualitative research methods. Interviewees included a convenience sample of volunteers and participants in the Tomorrow Project, a large cohort study in Alberta, Canada. Following each round of interviews the STAR-Q was revised and cognitively tested until saturation was achieved.
Six rounds of cognitive interviewing in 22 adults (5 males, 17 females) age 23−74 years, led to revisions involving 1) use of recall aids; 2) ambiguous terms; and 3) specific tasks, such as averaging across multiple routines, reporting time asleep and self-care, and reporting by activity domain.
Cognitive interviewing is a critical step in questionnaire development. Knowledge gained in this study led to revisions that improved respondent acceptability and comprehension of the STAR-Q and will complement ongoing validity testing.
Marina M. Reeves, Alison L. Marshall, Neville Owen, Elisabeth A.H. Winkler, and Elizabeth G. Eakin
We compared the responsiveness to change (prepost intervention) of 3 commonly-used self-report measures of physical activity.
In a cluster-randomized trial of a telephone-delivered intervention with primary care patients, physical activity was assessed at baseline and 4 months (n = 381) using the 31-item CHAMPS questionnaire; the 6-item Active Australia Questionnaire (AAQ); and, 2 walking for exercise items from the US National Health Interview Survey (USNHIS). Responsiveness to change was calculated for frequency (sessions/week) and duration (MET·minutes/week) of walking and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity.
The greatest responsiveness for walking frequency was found with the USNHIS (0.45, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.72) and AAQ (0.43, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.67), and for walking duration with the USNHIS (0.27, 95%CI 0.13, 0.41) and CHAMPS (0.24, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.36). For moderate-to-vigorous activity, responsiveness for frequency was slightly higher for the AAQ (0.50, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.69); for duration it was slightly higher for CHAMPS (0.32, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.47).
In broad-reach trials, brief self-report measures (USNHIS and AAQ) are useful for their comparability to population physical activity estimates and low respondent burden. These measures can be used without a loss in responsiveness to change relative to a more detailed self-report measure (CHAMPS).
Dennis Dreiskaemper, Till Utesch, and Maike Tietjens
questionnaires measuring the physical self-concept in adolescents have been published (Physical Self-Description Questionnaire: Marsh & Redmayne, 1994 ; Marsh, Richards, Johnson, Roche, & Tremayne, 1994 ; Stiller, Würth, & Alfermann, 2004 ; Physical Self-Description Questionnaire–Short Version: Marsh, Martin
Rozalia Kouvelioti and George Vagenas
The assessment of dietary attitudes and behaviors provides information of interest to sports nutritionists. Although there has been little analysis of the quality of research undertaken in this field, there is evidence of a number of flaws and methodological concerns in some of the studies in the available literature. This review undertook a systematic assessment of the attributes of research assessing the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of athletes and coaches. Sixty questionnaire-based studies were identified by a search of official databases using specific key terms with subsequent analysis by certain inclusion–exclusion criteria. These studies were then analyzed using 33 research quality criteria related to the methods, questionnaires, and statistics used. We found that many studies did not provide information on critical issues such as research hypotheses (92%), the gaining of ethics approval (50%) or informed consent (35%), or acknowledgment of limitations in the implementation of studies or interpretation of data (72%). Many of the samples were nonprobabilistic (85%) and rather small (42%). Many questionnaires were of unknown origin (30%), validity (72%), and reliability (70%) and resulted in low (≤ 60%) response rates (38%). Pilot testing was not undertaken in 67% of the studies. Few studies dealt with sample size (2%), power (3%), assumptions (7%), confidence intervals (3%), or effect sizes (3%). Improving some of these problems and deficits may enhance future research in this field.
Nicolas Farina, Laura J. Hughes, Amber Watts, and Ruth G. Lowry
Measuring physical activity is complicated, with trade-offs between the different types of available measures in terms of accuracy, acceptability, and feasibility ( Prince et al., 2008 ; Sylvia, Bernstein, Hubbard, Keating, & Anderson, 2014 ). Physical activity questionnaires have a distinct place
Aurora de Fátima G.C. Mafra Cabral, Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro, Charlles H.M. Castro, Marco Túlio De Mello, Sérgio Tufik, and Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld
among the objective methods more currently used to measure physical activity ( Kolt, 2013 ). On the other hand, questionnaires have been used to subjectively estimate physical activity, especially due to their convenience and low cost ( Dollman et al., 2009 ). As a limitation, questionnaires may vary