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Race and Sport in Canada–Intersecting Inequalities

Robert P. Mathner

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The Relative Effects of Gender, Race, and Sport on University Academic Performance

Gary Kiger and Deana Lorentzen

This paper investigates the relative effects of gender, race, and type of sport (revenue vs. nonrevenue sport) on academic performance among university athletes. Using regression analyses, the study demonstrates that race is the strongest predictor of university academic performance. Gender, race, and type of sport also influence intervening variables such as secondary school academic achievement, financial assistance, and intensity of involvement in athletics at the university. The implications for academic and athletic programs are discussed.

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Arthur Ashe, Privacy, and the Media: An Analysis of Newspaper Journalists’ Coverage of Ashe’s AIDS Announcement

Pamela C. Laucella

Arthur Ashe made history as the first Black man to win a Grand Slam title in professional tennis. More important than Ashe’s 33 singles titles, however, was his commitment to education and social justice. As only the second prominent professional athlete to publicly admit having HIV (after professional basketball player “Magic” Johnson), Ashe’s indefatigable strength of spirit endured despite the forced disclosure. This research investigates how newspaper journalists portrayed Ashe, USA Today, and AIDS. The sample of 76 articles came from newspapers from 6 major markets nationwide and 1 regional market. The study reveals the complexities of ethical decision making for journalists in their coverage of privacy and health issues. Although there was ambivalence in journalists’ coverage of USA Today and its pursuit of Ashe, journalists collectively praised his character and commitment to humanity. Journalists framed Ashe as a victim, pioneer, role model, and hero by stressing his altruism, activism, and spirit.

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Racial Relations Theories and Sport: Suggestions for a More Critical Analysis

Susan Birrell

This paper suggests that sport sociology may be ready to move from a generally atheoretical approach to “race and sport“ to a critical analysis of racial relations and sport. Four theoretical groups are identified from the writing of racial relations scholars: bias and discrimination theories, assimilation and cultural deprivation theories, materialist and class-based theories, and culturalist or colonial theories. In the past, studies of race and sport have fit within the former two theories. A cultural studies approach that blends the latter theories is advocated in order to move toward the goal of critical theory and develop a comprehensive model for analyzing the complex of relations of dominance and subordination simultaneously structured along racial, gender, and class lines.

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White College Students’ Explanations of White (and Black) Athletic Performance: A Qualitative Investigation of White College Students

C. Keith Harrison, Suzanne Malia Lawrence, and Scott J. Bukstein

While the sport sociology community has had a long-running conversation about the relationship between athletes’ success and race, there are few empirical investigations of individuals’ attitudes regarding the connection of race and athletic performance. This study on White college students’ explanations of White (and African American) athleticism attempts to push this discussion of race and sport. Using a qualitative, open-ended question we elicited explanations from White college students about athletic performance. Findings revealed that White students explained White athleticism through discussions of African American athleticism. In addition, White student participants avoided biological explanations regarding White athletes’ success.

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A Cross-Validation Study of Selected Performance Measures in Predicting Academic Success among Collegiate Athletes

Steven Baumann and Keith Henschen

In recent years, the academic standards of the collegiate student athlete have become a popular subject within the sociology of sport. In January 1983, the top competitive division of the NCAA voted to make more stringent the academic standards for participants in Division I intercollegiate sports. This was known as Proposal 48, and although the vote was 2 to 1 in favor of it, much criticism was also voiced. This study examines the relationship between the American College Testing Program (ACT) and actual grade point average (GPA) for 753 male and female athletes at the University of Utah during a 10-year period. A secondary purpose was to determine the predictive validity of a predicted GPA formula (PGPA) and high school grade point average (HSGPA) as estimates of actual GPA. Other purposes were to determine the correlation of ACT, PGPA, and HSGPA with regard to gender, race, and sport. Pearson product-moment correlations were utilized to establish relationships between ACT scores, PGPA, and HSGPA with actual GPA. A multiple correlation coefficient was computed and a regression equation was established. In addition, a cross-validation was performed on the existing data. Results indicated that an equation combining ACT and HSGPA is the best predictor for Caucasians, while HSGPA alone is the best predictor for non-Caucasians. Factors other than ACT scores appear to be better predictors of academic success for the student-athlete, thus casting doubt upon the validity of Proposal 48 for the NCAA.

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Anti-Racism in Sport Organizations

Ajhanai C.I. Keaton

, and settler colonialism (Chapter 3); positive youth development, anti-Blackness (Chapter 5); the White gaze (Chapter 7); name, image, and likeness (Chapter 6); and corporate social responsibility (CSR; Chapter 8). Consequently, the text is an opportunity to learn about race- and sport

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Anti-Racism in Sport Organizations

Krystina B. Sarff

of CSR and sport” (p. 110). Overall, this book can be utilized at a variety of levels. At the undergraduate level, select chapters could be read as a supplement to a primary textbook on race and sport. At minimum, an awareness of sociological terminology would be needed to complement specific

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“Teaching to Transgress”: Race and a Pedagogy of Empowerment in Kinesiology

Ketra L. Armstrong

negotiated perceptions of race in the context of sport. To avoid critically discussing race, the students used strategies, such as (a) mitigation, making less racially intense statements to use qualifying context and modifiers to describe the race and sport phenomenon; (b) credentialing, asserting

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“Soul on Ice”: Black Commodification, Race, and the National Hockey League

Kia Cummings and Benjamin Burroughs

, 1996 ). Systems of inequality, restricted access, structural racism, and blatant discrimination based on race are typical outcomes when race and sport collide. Delgado and Stefancic ( 2013 ) recognize that racism is ingrained in the fabric and systems of American society. This recognition is relevant