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Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welveart, Ida A. Heikura, Avish P. Sharma, Jamie Whitfield, Megan L. Ross, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, and Louise M. Burke

This study implemented a 2-week high carbohydrate (CHO) diet intended to maximize CHO oxidation rates and examined the iron-regulatory response to a 26-km race walking effort. Twenty international-level, male race walkers were assigned to either a novel high CHO diet (MAX = 10 g/kg body mass CHO daily) inclusive of gut-training strategies, or a moderate CHO control diet (CON = 6 g/kg body mass CHO daily) for a 2-week training period. The athletes completed a 26-km race walking test protocol before and after the dietary intervention. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post-, and 3 hr postexercise and measured for serum ferritin, interleukin-6, and hepcidin-25 concentrations. Similar decreases in serum ferritin (17–23%) occurred postintervention in MAX and CON. At the baseline, CON had a greater postexercise increase in interleukin-6 levels after 26 km of walking (20.1-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 35.7]) compared with MAX (10.2-fold, 95% CI [3.7, 18.7]). A similar finding was evident for hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise (CON = 10.8-fold, 95% CI [4.8, 21.2]; MAX = 8.8-fold, 95% CI [3.9, 16.4]). Postintervention, there were no substantial differences in the interleukin-6 response (CON = 13.6-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 20.5]; MAX = 11.2-fold, 95% CI [6.5, 21.3]) or hepcidin levels (CON = 7.1-fold, 95% CI [2.1, 15.4]; MAX = 6.3-fold, 95% CI [1.8, 14.6]) between the dietary groups. Higher resting serum ferritin (p = .004) and hotter trial ambient temperatures (p = .014) were associated with greater hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise. Very high CHO diets employed by endurance athletes to increase CHO oxidation have little impact on iron regulation in elite athletes. It appears that variations in serum ferritin concentration and ambient temperature, rather than dietary CHO, are associated with increased hepcidin concentrations 3 hr postexercise.

Open access

Ralph Beneke and Renate M. Leithäuser

“real outdoor events” marathon and 20- or 50-km race walk lasting between 1:30 and 4:30 h:min will be contested at 23:59 and 23:30 h:min. These events will be undertaken in challenging conditions, near 30°C, at cost of weird timing with respect to circadian rhythm and normal life events. Commencing

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon, and Trent Stellingwerff

Federations (IAAF), recognizes a number of distinct disciplines: sprints, middle/long distance, hurdles, and relays on the track; throws and jumps on the field; the combined events of heptathlon and decathlon; road running; race walks; cross-country; and mountain running and ultrarunning ( ). The

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones, and Martin Mooses

Event 10,000-m track race Cross country 21.1-km half marathon 20-km race walk 42.2-km marathon 50-km race walk World record: male (hr:min:s) 26:15:53 (Kenenisa Bekele) ∼12 km (no records) 58:18 (Abraham Kiptum) 1:16:36 (Yusuki Suzuki) 2:01:39 (Eliud Kipchoge) 3:32:33 (Yohann Diniz World record: female

Restricted access

Anne-Marie Heugas and Isabelle A. Siegler

preferred to race walk instead of run at typically low running speeds, which led to a significantly higher mean PTS than that for the nonrace walkers. The PTS of the race walkers was much larger than that found in previous studies ( Ziv & Rotstein, 2009 ), presumably because of our participants’ higher

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Rachael L. Thurecht and Fiona E. Pelly

Taekwondo Wushu Golf Tennis Rhythmic gymnastics Judo Weight lifting Archery Fencing 7 (4.5) 4 (2.6) 4 (2.6) 4 (2.6) 4 (2.6) 2 (1.3) 2 (1.3) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6) Volleyball 5 (3.2) Note . a Athletics included 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m, 1,500 m, 4 × 400-m relay, 20-km race walk, half marathon

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Luis Rodriguez and Santiago Veiga

18. Vernillo G , Piacentini MF , Drake A , Agnello L , Fiorella P , La Torre A . Exercise intensity and pacing strategy of a 5-km indoor race walk during a world record attempt: a case study . J Strength Cond Res . 2011 ; 25 : 2048 – 2052 . PubMed ID: 21701290 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b

Open access

Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon, and Louise M. Burke

 m and 400-m hurdles ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Middle distance: 800 m, 1,500 m, 3,000 m, and steeple chase ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Long distance: 5,000 m, 10,000 m, cross-country, 20-km race walk, half marathon, marathon, 50-km race walk, and mountain/ultra running ✓ ✓ Jumps and throws: high jump, long jump, triple jump, pole vault

Open access

Ella S. Smith, Alannah K.A. McKay, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Rachel Harris, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Trent Stellingwerff, and Louise M. Burke

ester supplementation impairs race walk performance ( Whitfield et al., 2021 ) Elite race walkers undertook a four-stage exercise economy test and real-life 10,000 m race before and after a 5-day isoenergetic high- or low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet Performance A 10,000-m race is a performance measure B

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Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra A. Zecevic, Shannon L. Sibbald, and Volker Nolte

1 (4.5) Individual sport Cycling 1 (4.5) Formula race car 1 (4.5) Ironman 1 (4.5) Road running 4 (18) Swimming 3 (13.6) Track and field  long jump, pole vault, and high jump 3 (13.6)  5,000 and 10,000 m 2 (9)  race walk 1,500 and 5,000 m 1 (4.5)  800 and 1,500 m 5 (23)  100, 200, and 400 m 5 (23