This paper extends previous research examining salary differentials by race/ethnicity in major league baseball. Our analysis adds to previous research by using career statistics for both hitters and pitchers, and, for the pitcher category, both starters and relievers. We also examined race/ethnicity two ways: (a) according to the standard three categories of white, black, and Hispanic and (b) according to five categories—white, black U.S. born, black foreign born, Hispanic U.S. born, and Hispanic foreign born. Using analysis of variance and regression analysis we found that race/ethnicity did not play a statistically significant role in salary determination, no matter how race/ethnicity was coded.
Dean A. Purdy, Wilbert M. Leonard II and D. Stanley Eitzen
Wilbert M. Leonard II
This study refined and extended Christiano’s recent inquiry on race and salaries in major league baseball. Instead of merely dichotomizing the independent variable into black and white, the data were trichotomized into white, black, and Hispanic categories; pitchers, because they were not studied, provided the focal point. A model of salary for pitchers was both specified and tested. Unstandardized regression coefficients (after disaggregating the units of analysis by race/ethnicity) revealed several instances of salary inequities but small ns precluded systematic testing. Hence, the verdict is still out as to whether or not the salaries of baseball pitchers varying in race/ethnicity are consistently different while holding other theoretically relevant variables constant.
Nilam Ram, Joanna Starek and Jay Johnson
The impact of race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation on human cognition, affect, and behavior has been well documented in the psychology, sociology, and counseling literature. Sport and exercise psychology, however, has minimized the importance of these variables (Duda & Allison, 1990). The purpose of the current study was to determine how race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation have been addressed in the recent sport and exercise psychology literature. Duda and Allison’s previous research was replicated and extended by analyzing the content of 982 manuscripts published in JSEP, JASP, and TSP between 1987 and 2000. Overall, 19.86% of manuscripts included references to race/ethnicity and 1.22% included references to sexual orientation. Detailed results demonstrate that, despite an increase in the number of papers that include references to race and ethnicity, there has been no systematic attempt to include the experience of marginalized groups in the literature. Researchers and practitioners are encouraged to incorporate appropriate questions, reporting, and sensitivity with regard to race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation into their work.
Katherine Beissner, Samantha J. Parker, Charles R. Henderson Jr., Anusmiriti Pal, Lynne Iannone and M. Cary Reid
This pilot study examined the feasibility and potential efficacy of a self-management program for seniors with chronic back pain and assessed for possible race/ ethnicity differences in program impact. Sixty-nine seniors (24 African Americans, 25 Hispanics, and 20 non-Hispanic Whites) enrolled in the 8-wk community-based program. Efficacy outcomes included pain-related disability as measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), pain intensity, pain self-efficacy, depressive symptoms, social activity, and functional status. Eighty percent of enrollees completed the program. Clinically important decreases in RMDQ scores were found for non-Hispanic White (adjusted change score = –3.53), African American (–3.89), and Hispanic (–8.45) participants. Improvements in all other outcomes were observed, but only for Hispanic participants. Results confirm that implementation of the protocol in urban senior centers is feasible, and the program shows potential efficacy. The race/ethnicity differences observed in the current study merit further investigation.
Samuel R. Hodge, Francis M. Kozub, Leah E. Robinson and Bethany L. Hersman
The purpose of this study was to determine what trends exist in the identification and description of participants used in data-based studies published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly and the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. Data were analyzed using frequency counts for journals and time periods from the 1980s to 2005 with chi-square tests on gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate, for example, that across the time span both journals published articles reporting males first over females, X 2 (3) = 22.16, p < .001. Trend data also reveal that even today most data-based studies in these journals fail to report race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Findings are discussed with guiding principles for future research.
Sohaila Shakib, Philip Veliz, Michele D. Dunbar and Don Sabo
This study examines sport as a source for youth popularity, and its variation by gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and grade level, using a nationally representative U.S. sample of 2,185 3rd—12th graders. Results indicate athletes are more likely than nonathletes to report self-perceived popularity equally across gender, socioeconomic status, and grade. Black athletes are less likely to report self-perceived popularity than Whites. When given a choice of popularity criteria, youth chose sport as the most important criterion for male, not female, popularity. Regarding male popularity, sport is chosen over other criteria by middle school youth more than elementary and high school youth. While sport is a status enhancer, there is variation by gender, ethnicity, and grade level.
Tyler G. Johnson, Timothy A. Brusseau, Paul W. Darst, Pamela H. Kulinna and Janel White-Taylor
The purposes of this study were to describe and analyze the steps/d of nonwhite minority children and youth by gender, grade level, race/ethnicity, and mode of school transportation. A secondary purpose was to compare the steps/d of minority children and youth to their Caucasian grade-level counterparts.
Participants were 547 minority youth grades 5 to 8 from 4 urban schools. Participants wore sealed pedometers for 6 consecutive week/school days. Three hundred and ten participants responded to a questionnaire concerning their mode of transportation to and from school.
Statistical analyses indicated a main effect for gender (F(3, 546) = 13.50, P < .001) with no interaction. Boys (12,589 ± 3921) accumulated significantly more steps/d than girls (9,539 ± 3,135). Further analyses also revealed a significant main effect for mode of school transportation (F(2, 309) = 15.97, P ≤ .001). Walkers (12,614 ± 4169) obtained significantly more steps/d than car (10,021 ± 2856) or bus (10,230 ± 3666) transit users.
Minority boys obtain similar steps/d as their Caucasian grade-level counterparts; minority girls obtain less steps/d than their Caucasian grade-level counterparts. Minority youth who actively commute are more likely to meet PA recommendations than nonactive commuters.
Robert H. Chappell and Costas I. Karageorghis
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ethnic and racial composition of male and female basketball players in the First Division of the English National Basketball League during the 1996/97 season. The secondary purpose was to compare the racial composition of players by playing position. Finally, a subsidiary purpose was to describe the racial and gender composition of coaches and assistant coaches in the women’s National Basketball League. Data were collated from team rosters of all teams comprising the First Division of the women’s and men’s National Basketball League in the 1996/97 season. The ethnic and racial designation of players (N = 270) and coaches (N = 23) was established from information supplied by each club or from individual players. There were significant differences in participation rates for British male and female players; there was an over-representation of black females in the forward position, and an over-representation of white male coaches in women’s teams. The present findings reflect the limited participation rates of females in general, and more specifically, the limited participation rates of women from ethnic minority groups.
Few studies have examined the associations among social cohesion, physical activity, and obesity in older adults. This study explored the influences of social cohesion and leisure-time physical activity on obesity in older adults, and tested whether these relationships varied by race/ethnicity and income level.
A cross-sectional analysis of adults in the 2013 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) who were over 65 years of age (N = 7714) was used. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the impacts of social cohesion and physical activity on obesity, and the relative risks (RR) were reported.
The median age was 73 years old, and 59.8% of respondents were female; 23.8% met the recommended level of moderate physical activity. Neighborhood social cohesion was not associated with obesity for older adults. Meeting the recommended level of vigorous physical activity was related to a lower probability of obesity only for older Hispanic adults (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.50), while older adults were less likely to be obese if they met the recommended level of moderate physical activity.
Increasing the level of physical activity may profoundly reduce the probability of obesity for older adults. Moreover, the results implied the need for future physical activity interventions for minorities.
Kerstin Gerst Emerson and Jennifer Gay
physical activity data. The inclusion criteria for the present analysis were: age 65 years or older and race/ethnicity identified as non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, or Mexican American. Other racial and ethnic groups were not included based on the NHANES guidelines for combining waves ( Centers for