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Carter A. Rockhill, Jonathan E. Howe, and Kwame J.A. Agyemang

offer simplified approaches when dealing with complex issues (e.g., racial diversity), which fails to appropriately address racial inequalities within the organization and minimizes the understanding of intersecting identities and pillars of DEI that are linked to race ( Bimper & Harrison, 2017

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Earl Smith and Angela Hattery

There have been many discussions about diversity and the value that it brings to the workplace (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Although sport has been deemed a model of diversity, where people of different races and ethnicities comingle as participants and spectators, there is a serious disconnect between perceptions of this diversity and the reality that defines the lack of racial diversity in the management (i.e., coaching and leadership) of sport. The purpose of this essay is to provide an exploration and analysis of the varied ways in which race may influence sport management experiences and opportunities. We frame this analysis through race relation theory, symbolic racism theory, social distance theory, and the concepts of segregation and power. The inferences and implications of our essay are centered on the undercurrent of the status of African American men in sport leadership, who are severely under-represented despite their prominent contribution to the financial vitality of the sport industry as players. The essay concludes with several policies and practices for improving racial diversity in sport management.

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Lesley Steinman, Mark Doescher, David Levinger, Cynthia Perry, Louise Carter, Amy Eyler, Semra Aytur, Angie L.I. Cradock, Kelly R. Evenson, Katie Heinrich, Jacqueline Kerr, Jill Litt, Yucel Severcan, and Carolyn Voorhees


Recent research demonstrates the importance of targeting the built environment to support individual physical activity, particularly for people experiencing health disparities. Master plans to promote biking and/or pedestrians (BPMPs) are a potential method for environmental change. This descriptive study aims to provide a snapshot of plan attributes and better understand demographic, social and transportation characteristics of communities with BPMPs.


We collected a census sample of BPMPs from 4 states. Population and commuting data were obtained from national statistics.


294 master plans were included, with most plans representing municipalities. 62% of plans targeted biking only, one-fifth targeted biking and walking, and 15% targeted walking only. The sampled locations have a similar demographic profile as the overall U.S. for median age and household income, people of color, high school education, and income inequality. The degree of racial diversity of sampled communities is slightly less than the U.S. average and the percentage of people who walk to work were slightly higher.


Given that communities with master plans have a similar profile as the overall U.S., BPMPs could feasibly be spread to communities throughout the country. Further research is planned to describe BPMPs in detail toward informing future plan development.

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Robert Whitaker

and within individual organizations. Six of those critical inflection points evaluated in this book are the creation of general-manager roles, the establishment of farm systems, the integration of racial diversity, the advent of first-year-player drafts, the beginning of free agency, and the rise of

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Yannick Kluch and Amy S. Wilson

coaching ranks can have on a team’s climate. In one such study, researchers discovered that a lack of racial diversity in coaching staff likely impacted the beliefs on their team, including a team’s approach to navigating the “politicization of sports” in the current political climate ( Druckman, Howat

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George B. Cunningham and Calvin Nite

more diverse, the expectations for inclusive actions also increase ( Cunningham, 2015 ). From one perspective, the labor pool in a workplace is likely to mirror that of the larger community in which the employees live. Indeed, Pugh, Dietz, Brief, and Wiley ( 2008 ) found that, as the racial diversity

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Anne Tjønndal

women ( Fasting & Sand, 2009 ). However, in boxing there are only 10% female coaches. More specifically, there were only six registered female boxing coaches in The Norwegian Boxing Federation in 2014 ( Tjønndal, 2016a ). It is important to recognize the lack of racial diversity in the sample. All of

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Reid J. Reale, Timothy J. Roberts, Khalil A. Lee, Justina L. Bonsignore, and Melissa L. Anderson

the relatively greater racial diversity in the present study of 126 (BM = 72.8 ± 16.6 kg, height = 176.2 ± 10.5 cm). This highlights the importance of population-specific models and the need to acquire observations across the range of a variable when developing prediction models. The revised 1991

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Rachel Allison

) interviewed five black women’s basketball players at a single, selective PWI, finding that players expressed discomfort with the lack of racial diversity on their campus, felt like “token” black students, and reported a lack of support from non-athlete black students. Similarly, Carter-Francique ( 2013

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Jared A. Russell, Sheri Brock, and Mary E. Rudisill

/05/20/fighting-gender-bias-student-evaluations-teaching-and-tenures-effect-instruction Hale , F. (Ed.). ( 2004 ). What makes racial diversity work in higher education: Academic leaders present successful policies and strategies . Sterling, VA : Stylus . Lilienfeld , E. ( 2016 , June ). How student