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Toben F. Nelson, Richard F. MacLehose, Cynthia Davey, Peter Rode and Marilyn S. Nanney

using self-reported PA measures suggest that white adolescents are more active than racial/ethnic minorities. 20 , 21 Other studies using accelerometers to objectively measure activity do not observe similar racial/ethnic disparities and find more activity among blacks compared with whites, at least

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Rebecca E. Hasson

these disparities in African American and Latino children and adolescents (see Figure  1 ). Figure 1 —Racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity supports at each level of the Bronfenbrenner ecological-systems model ( Bronfenbrenner, 1979 ). Adapted from Research and Training Center on Community

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Galya Bigman, Vandita Rajesh, Laura M. Koehly, Larkin L. Strong, Abiodun O. Oluyomi, Sara S. Strom and Anna V. Wilkinson

Background:

Existing racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity during childhood increase Hispanics’ risk of developing chronic diseases, which serves to increase health disparities. This study examined associations of family cohesion and conflict with self-reported moderate-tovigorous physical activity (MVPA), controlling for psychosocial covariates such as subjective social status, anxiety, and sensation-seeking.

Methods:

1000 Mexican origin adolescents reported their MVPA levels approximately 2 years apart. Psychosocial covariates, family cohesion and conflict were measured at the first assessment. Generalized Linear Models were used to prospectively examine the relationship between family cohesion and conflict and subsequent MVPA based on 711 participants who had low levels of baseline MVPA.

Results:

35% of boys and 24% of girls reported adequate MVPA levels at follow-up; girls were less likely to report adequate MVPA (RR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61–0.93) than boys. Overall, family cohesion was associated with MVPA (P = .01), but family cohesion was not (P = .41). Gender-based analyses revealed that adequate MVPA was associated with family cohesion (RR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.03–1.88), sensation seeking (RR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00–1.10), and age (RR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.74–0.98) among girls and with subjective social status (RR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.08–1.33) among boys.

Conclusions:

The family social environment and gender differences should be addressed in health promotion programs targeting MVPA.

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Mitali S. Thanawala, Juned Siddique, John A. Schneider, Alka M. Kanaya, Andrew J. Cooper, Swapna S. Dave, Nicola Lancki and Namratha R. Kandula

Background: Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity remains a challenge in the United States. South Asian immigrants in the United States have particularly low physical activity levels, and evidence suggests that social context may be important. This study examined associations between personal social networks and moderate to vigorous leisure-time physical activity (MVPA) among South Asians in the United States. Methods: We used cross-sectional data (2014–2017) from 689 South Asians (aged 43–85 y) who participated in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. Self-reported physical activity and egocentric network data were collected from participants about their network members. Regression models were used to determine associations between social network characteristics and participants’ MVPA. Results: Participants were on average 59 years old (SD = 9) and reported 1335 metabolic equivalent minutes per week of MVPA (interquartile range = 735, 2212). Having network members who exercised or who were exercise partners associated with increased MVPA in men (β coefficient = 241 MET min/wk [95% confidence interval, 63 to 419] and β = 520 MET min/wk [95% confidence interval, 322 to 718], respectively). For women, the association was only significant if the exercise partner was a spouse. Conclusion: Physical activity interventions utilizing network members as exercise partners may have potential in South Asians but must consider gender differences.

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Morgan N. Clennin and Russell R. Pate

.1002/oby.20903 25324223 10.1002/oby.20903 32. Rossen LM . Neighbourhood economic deprivation explains racial/ethnic disparities in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in the USA . J Epidemiol Community Health . 2014 ; 68 ( 2 ): 123 – 129 . PubMed ID: 24072744 doi:10.1136/jech-2012

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Kavita A. Gavand, Kelli L. Cain, Terry L. Conway, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Jacqueline Kerr, Karen Glanz and James F. Sallis

and environmentally diverse neighborhoods in 2 regions of the United States, use of measures with demonstrated reliability, inclusion of both objective and self-report PA measures, and adjustment for numerous covariates. Because there is suggestive but inconsistent evidence of income and/or racial/ethnic

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Carla L. Dellaserra, Noe C. Crespo, Michael Todd, Jennifer Huberty and Sonia Vega-López

NU , Smith GL , Flores AM , et al . Racial/ethnic disparity and predictors of leisure-time physical activity among US men . Ethn Dis . 2005 ; 15 ( 1 ): 40 – 52 . PubMed 60. Zsembik BA , Fennell D . Ethnic variation in health and the determinants of health among Latinos . Soc Sci Med

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David X. Marquez, Robert Wilson, Susan Aguiñaga, Priscilla Vásquez, Louis Fogg, Zhi Yang, JoEllen Wilbur, Susan Hughes and Charles Spanbauer

). However, evidence indicates that racial/ethnic disparities in PA exist. Specifically, Latinos aged 55–74 are 46–50% less likely to engage in leisure time PA (LTPA) than older non-Latino Whites of comparable age ( Marquez, Neighbors, & Bustamante, 2010 ). Also, older Latinos are largely uninformed about

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Marissa A. Kobayashi, Tae Kyoung Lee, Rafael O. Leite, Blanca Noriega Esquives, Guillermo Prado, Sarah E. Messiah and Sara M. St. George

. Racial-ethnic disparities in maternal parenting stress: the role of structural disadvantages and parenting values . J Health Soc Behav . 2013 ; 54 ( 3 ): 386 – 404 . PubMed ID: 24026535 doi:10.1177/0022146513498511 24026535 10.1177/0022146513498511 18. Raffaelli M , Andrade FCD , Wiley AR

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Aquasia A. Shaw, Merry Moiseichik, Heather Blunt-Vinti and Sarah Stokowski

. ( 2003 ). Defining cultural competence: A practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care . Public Health Reports, 118 , 293 – 302 . 10.1016/S0033-3549(04)50253-4 Bimper , A.Y. ( 2014 ). Empowering excellence: Culturally meaningful pedagogy enhancing Black