Context: Tennis playing generates specific adaptations, particularly at the dominant shoulder. It remains to be established whether shoulder-strength balance can be restored by sling-based training for adolescent recreational tennis players. Objective: To investigate the effects of a sling-based exercise for shoulder external rotators on external rotator muscle strength, internal rotator muscle strength, glenohumeral range of motion, and tennis serve performance. Design: Test-retest design. Setting: Tennis training sports facilities. Participants: Twelve adolescent male players volunteered to participate in this study (age: 13.3 ± 0.5 y; height: 1.64 ± 0.07 m, mass: 51.7 ± 5.8 kg, International Tennis Number: 8). Intervention: The procedure spanned 10 wk. For the first 5 wk, players performed their regular training (RT) twice a week. For the last 5 wk, a sling-based exercise (SE) for strengthening the shoulder external rotator muscles was added to their RT. Main Outcome Measures: Maximal isometric strength of shoulder external and internal rotator muscles and glenohumeral range of motion in external and internal rotation were assessed in both shoulders. Serve performance was also evaluated by accuracy and postimpact ball velocity using a radar gun. Results: No change was found in any measurement after the RT period. Significant increases in external (∼+5%; P < .001) and internal (∼+2%; P < .05) rotator muscle strength and in external/internal strength ratio (∼+4%; P < .001) were observed after the SE period. Serve velocity and accuracy were significantly improved after SE (∼+2% and ∼+24%, respectively; P < .05 for both), while no clinically meaningful alterations in range of motion were observed. Conclusions: Prophylactic intervention through SE for strengthening shoulder external rotator muscles appears effective in restoring strength balance at the dominant shoulder and may prevent adolescent tennis players from sustaining degenerative shoulder problems, which could later impair their performance of daily and work-related tasks.
Charles Goulet and Isabelle Rogowski
Marcel Bouffard and Albert E. Wall
The effect of knowledge on decision making and performance of educable mentally handicapped (EMH) adolescents was studied in a simulated table tennis situation. In two experiments, knowledge about where the ball would land on the table was manipulated. The position the players selected to return the ball was affected by the knowledge (uncertainty) associated with its future landing location. Depending upon the degree of uncertainty, results indicated the players used (a) a total preparation for one particular event strategy, (b) a partial preparation for one particular event strategy, or (c) a no-preparation for one particular event strategy. Further, knowledge about the ball’s future landing location affected the decision about the type of stroke to use and had a minimal effect on the number of balls hit. Overall, these results demonstrate an intricate relationship between knowledge, decision making, and performance in a simulated racket sport by EMH adolescents.
This paper reports a case study of a successful cognitive behavioral intervention using performance profiling. The subject, a top-10 female racket sport player, had a problem with her temperament on court, becoming angry and frustrated in pressure situations. Performance profiling was used for three major purposes: (a) to aid the sport psychologist in identifying an appropriate psychological intervention, (b) to maximize the performer’s self-motivation to partake in and adhere to the intervention, and (c) to monitor any changes during the intervention. A multimodal stress management approach was adopted using a combination of component parts from the available packages. The performance profiling technique showed significant improvements in the performer’s ability to cope with pressure situations 3 and 6 months after the intervention.
Olivier Girard, Franck Brocherie, Jean-Benoit Morin and Grégoire P. Millet
To determine the intrasession and intersession (ie, within- and between-days) reliability in treadmill sprinting-performance outcomes and associated running mechanics.
After familiarization, 13 male recreational sportsmen (team- and racket-sport background) performed three 5-s sprints on an instrumented treadmill with 2 min recovery on 3 different days, 5–7 d apart. Intrasession (comparison of the 3 sprints of the first session) and intersession (comparison of the average of the 3 sprints across days) reliability of performance, kinetics, kinematics, and spring-mass variables were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficients of variation (CV%).
Intrasession reliability was high (ICC > .94 and CV < 8%). Intersession reliability was good for performance indices (.83 < ICC < .89 and CV < 10%, yet with larger variability for mean velocity than for distance covered or propulsive power) and kinetic parameters (ICC > .94 and CV < 5%, yet with larger variability for mean horizontal forces than for mean vertical forces) and ranged from good to high for all kinematic (.88 < ICC < .95 and CV ≤ 3.5%) and spring-mass variables (.86 < ICC < .99 and CV ≤ 6.5%). Compared with intrasession, minimal detectable differences were on average twice larger for intersession designs, except for sprint kinetics.
Instrumented treadmill sprint offers a reliable method of assessing running mechanics during single sprints either within the same session or between days.
Javier Abian-Vicen, Adrián Castanedo, Pablo Abian, Cristina Gonzalez-Millan, Juan José Salinero and Juan Del Coso
The aim was to analyze the influence of competitive round on muscle strength, body-fluid balance, and renal function in elite badminton players during a real competition. Body mass, jump height during a countermovement jump, handgrip force, and urine samples were obtained from 13 elite badminton players (6 men and 7 women) before and after the 2nd-round and quarterfinal matches of the national Spanish badminton championship. Sweat rate was determined by using prematch-to-postmatch body-mass change and by weighing individually labeled fluid bottles. Sweat rates were 1.04 ± 0.62 and 0.98 ± 0.43 L/h, while rehydration rate was 0.69 ± 0.26 and 0.91 ± 0.52 L/h for the 2nd round and quarterfinals, respectively. Thus, dehydration was 0.47% ± 1.03% after the 2nd round and 0.23% ± 0.43% after the quarterfinals. There were no differences in prematch-to-postmatch jump height, but jump height was reduced from 37.51 ± 8.83 cm after the 2nd-round game to 34.82 ± 7.37 cm after the quarterfinals (P < .05). No significant differences were found in handgrip force when comparing prepost matches or rounds, although there were significant differences between dominant and nondominant hands (P < .05). The succession of rounds caused the appearance of proteinuria, hematuria, glycosuria, and higher nitrite and ketone concentrations in urine. Rehydration patterns during a real badminton competition were effective to prevent dehydration. A badminton match did not affect jump height or handgrip force, but jump height was progressively reduced by the competitive round. Badminton players’ renal responses reflected diminished renal flux due to the high-intensity nature of this racket sport.
Yann Le Mansec, Jérôme Perez, Quentin Rouault, Julie Doron and Marc Jubeau
As a racket sport, it is well known that performance in badminton is multifactorial, including physiological, psychological, technical, and/or tactical parameters. 1 However, the impact of each of these parameters on the ability to perform at high level is still a matter of debate. For instance
Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Manuela González, Zigor Montalvo and Grégoire P. Millet
, and the evidence on the acute response to an on-court RSH session for racket sport players is still scarce. 15 , 16 The present study analyzed the acute performance, physiological, and perceptual response to an on-court badminton-specific RS session performed in normoxia or under systemic (RSH) and
Mathias H. Kosack, Walter Staiano, Rasmus Folino, Mads B. Hansen and Simon Lønbro
interval-based sports, including table tennis as the only racket sport, which is the closest studies get to the workload during a badminton match. 18 , 19 , 28 , 29 These studies evaluated the effect of MF on physical and technical performance in a game-like situation. Interestingly, the studies observed
Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Claire Gudex, Kjeld Andersen, Anders Bo Bojesen and Uffe Jørgensen
undertaken was ball sport (eg, football, handball), running, fitness, biking, weight lifting, dancing/gymnastics, racket sport, swimming, and power walking. As shown in Table 1 , injured exercisers were significantly older and had a higher BMI and were more likely to be male. The groups were similar in the
Stefanie Klatt and Nicholas J. Smeeton
considering other team and racket sport games in the future. Moreover, it may be the case that other psychological factors such as self-regulation (e.g., Baumeister, Vohs, & Tice, 2007 ) influence decision making by biasing sensory integration. For example, more self-control is needed to make more accurate