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Sami Yli-Piipari, Todd Layne, Janet Hinson and Carol Irwin

Oaks, CA : Sage . Campbell , M.K. , Elbourne , D.R. , & Altman , D.G. ( 2004 ). Consort statement: Extension to cluster randomized trials . British Medical Journal, 328 , 702 – 708 . doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7441.702 10.1136/bmj.328.7441.702 Chatzisarantis , N.L.D. , & Hagger , M.S. ( 2009

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Rebekah Steele, W. Kerry Mummery and Trudy Dwyer

Background:

A growing number of the population are using the Internet for health information, such as physical activity (PA). The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of delivery modes for a behavior change program targeting PA.

Methods:

A randomized trial was conducted with 192 subjects randomly allocated to either a face-to-face, Internet-mediated, or Internet-only arm of a 12-wk intervention. Subjects included inactive adults with Internet access. The primary outcome variable was self-reported PA, assessed at four time points.

Results:

The results showed no group × time interaction for PA F(6, 567) = 1.64, p > 0.05, and no main effect for group F(2, 189) = 1.58, p > 0.05. However, a main effect for time F(3, 567) = 75.7, p < 0.01 was observed for each group. All groups were statistically equivalent immediately post-intervention (p < 0.05), but not at the follow-up time points (p > 0.05). The Internet-mediated and Internet-only groups showed similar increases in PA to the face-to-face group immediately post-intervention.

Conclusions:

This study provides evidence in support of the Internet in the delivery of PA interventions and highlights avenues for future research.

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Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger and Brad Jon Schoenfeld

199212313272701 10.1056/NEJM199212313272701 Longland , T.M. , Oikawa , S.Y. , Mitchell , C.J. , Devries , M.C. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2016 ). Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: A randomized

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Aubrianne E. Rote, Lori A. Klos, Michael J. Brondino, Amy E. Harley and Ann M. Swartz

Background:

Facebook may be a useful tool to provide a social support group to encourage increases in physical activity. This study examines the efficacy of a Facebook social support group to increase steps/day in young women.

Methods:

Female college freshmen (N = 63) were randomized to one of two 8-week interventions: a Facebook Social Support Group (n = 32) or a Standard Walking Intervention (n = 31). Participants in both groups received weekly step goals and tracked steps/day with a pedometer. Women in the Facebook Social Support Group were also enrolled in a Facebook group and asked to post information about their steps/day and provide feedback to one another.

Results:

Women in both intervention arms significantly increased steps/day pre- to postintervention (F(8,425) = 94.43, P < .001). However, women in the Facebook Social Support Group increased steps/day significantly more (F(1,138) = 11.34, P < .001) than women in the Standard Walking Intervention, going from 5295 to 12,472 steps/day.

Conclusions:

These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of using Facebook to offer a social support group to increase physical activity in young women. Women in the Facebook Social Support Group increased walking by approximately 1.5 miles/day more than women in the Standard Walking Intervention which, if maintained, could have a profound impact on their future health.

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Bradley M. Wipfli, Chad D. Rethorst and Daniel M. Landers

A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effects of exercise on anxiety. Because previous meta-analyses in the area included studies of varying quality, only randomized, controlled trials were included in the present analysis. Results from 49 studies show an overall effect size of -0.48, indicating larger reductions in anxiety among exercise groups than no-treatment control groups. Exercise groups also showed greater reductions in anxiety compared with groups that received other forms of anxiety-reducing treatment (effect size = -0.19). Because only randomized, controlled trials were examined, these results provide Level 1, Grade A evidence for using exercise in the treatment of anxiety. In addition, exercise dose data were calculated to examine the relationship between dose of exercise and the corresponding magnitude of effect size.

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Wendy I. Drechsler, John F. Knarr and Lynn Snyder-Mackler

Eighteen subjects participated in a randomized controlled clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of two physical therapy treatments for tennis elbow. The subjects were divided into two groups: In the neural tension group (NTG), the head of the radius was mobilized and specific physical therapy mobilizations were used to address hypomobility of the radial nerve. The standard treatment group (STG) received ultrasound, transverse friction massage, and stretching and strengthening exercises for the extensors of the wrist. All subjects were treated twice weekly for 6 to 8 weeks. Follow-up data were obtained at 3 months post-treatment. Subjects who received radial head mobilization improved over time (p < .05), while those who did not receive radial head mobilization did not improve. Results of the NTG treatment were linked to the radial head treatment, and isolated effects of the NTG treatment could not be determined. There were no long-term positive results in the STG.

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Daniel Santa Mina, Shabbir M.H. Alibhai, Andrew G. Matthew, Crissa L. Guglietti, Meysam Pirbaglou, John Trachtenberg and Paul Ritvo

Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) has side effects that significantly impair health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Exercise ameliorates many side effects of ADT, but different modalities, particularly in the home-based setting, have not been well studied. In this study the authors randomly assigned 66 PCa survivors receiving ADT to 6 mo of home-based aerobic or resistance training. Psychosocial well-being and physical fitness were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 mo, and then 6 mo postintervention. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that fatigue and HRQOL were not significantly different between groups; however, in a per-protocol analysis the resistance-exercise training group demonstrated clinically significant improvements in HRQOL. Differential within-group effects on physical fitness were also observed at various time points. At all time points, the aerobic-training group engaged in significantly more physical activity than the resistance-training group, a finding that should be further examined given evidence-based guidelines for activity volume in cancer survivors.

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Alan A. Zakaria, Robert B. Kiningham and Ananda Sen

Objective:

To determine if there is any benefit to static stretching after performing a dynamic warm-up in the prevention of injury in high school soccer athletes.

Design:

Prospective cluster randomized nonblinded study.

Setting:

12 high schools with varsity and junior varsity boys’ soccer teams (24 soccer teams) across the state of Michigan.

Participants:

Four hundred ninety-nine student-athletes were enrolled, and 465 completed the study. One high school dropped out of the study in the first week, leaving a total of 22 teams.

Interventions:

Dynamic stretching protocol vs dynamic + static (D+S) stretching protocol.

Main Outcome Measures:

Lower-extremity, core, or lower-back injuries per team.

Results:

Twelve teams performed the dynamic stretching protocol and 10 teams performed the D+S stretching protocol. There were 17 injuries (1.42 ± 1.49 injuries/team) among the teams that performed the dynamic stretching protocol and 20 injuries (2.0 ± 1.24 injuries/team) among the teams that performed the D+S protocol. There was no statistically significant difference in injuries between the 2 groups (P = .33).

Conclusions:

There is no difference between dynamic stretching and D+S stretching in the prevention of lower-extremity, core, and back injuries in high school male soccer athletes. Static stretching does not provide any added benefit to dynamic stretching in the prevention of injury in this population before exercise.

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Lisa M. Quintiliani, Marci K. Campbell, J. Michael Bowling, Susan Steck, Pamela S. Haines and Brenda M. DeVellis

Background:

A better understanding of identifying tailoring variables would improve message design. Tailoring to a behavior that a participant selects as one they would like to work on may increase message relevance, and thus effectiveness. This trial compared 3 groups: message tailored to physical activity as a participant-selected topic (choice), message tailored to physical activity as an expert-determined topic (expert), or nontailored message (comparison).

Methods:

408 female college students received web-delivered computer-tailored messages on physical activity. Outcomes were immediate and 1-month follow-up changes in psychosocial, goal-related, and behavioral variables related to physical activity.

Results:

Participants were predominately non-Hispanic White (73.8%). Change in self-efficacy and goal commitment at immediate follow-up and vigorous physical activity at 1-month follow-up was greater in the expert versus comparison group. Change in goal commitment at immediate follow-up was lower in the choice versus expert group. In the expert group, those choosing physical activity as their selected topic perceived the goal to be easier at immediate follow-up compared with those receiving unmatched messages.

Conclusions:

Findings supported tailoring to an expert-determined topic. However, based on the beneficial change in perceived goal difficulty when topics matched, future research should encourage synchrony between participant-selected topics and expert recommendations.

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Tim Hartmann, Lukas Zahner, Uwe Pühse, Jardena J. Puder and Susi Kriemler

The present study tested the effect of a school-based physical activity (PA) program on quality of life (QoL) in 540 elementary school children. First and fifth graders were randomly assigned to a PA program or a no-PA control condition during one academic year. QoL was assessed by the Child Health Questionnaire at baseline and postintervention. Based on mixed linear model analyses, physical QoL in first graders and physical and psychosocial QoL in fifth graders were not affected by the intervention. In first graders, the PA intervention had a positive impact on psychosocial QoL (effect size [d], 0.32; p < .05). Subpopulation analyses revealed that this effect was caused by an effect in urban (effect size [d], 0.38; p < .05) and overweight first graders (effect size [d], 0.45; p < .05). In conclusion, a school-based PA intervention had little effect on QoL in elementary school children.