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James C. Brown, Caron-Jayne Miller, Michael Posthumus, Martin P. Schwellnus and Malcolm Collins


Endurance running performance is a multifactorial phenotype that is strongly associated with running economy. Sit and reach range of motion (SR ROM) is negatively associated with running economy, suggesting that reduced SR ROM is advantageous for endurance running performance. The COL5A1 gene has been associated with both endurance running performance and SR ROM in separate cohorts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether COL5A1 is associated with ultra-marathon running performance and whether this relationship could be partly explained by prerace SR ROM.


Seventy-two runners (52 male, 20 female) were recruited from the 56 km Two Oceans ultra-marathon and were assessed for prerace SR ROM. The cohort was genotyped for the COL5A1 BsfUI restriction fragment length polymorphism, and race times were collected after the event.


Participants with a TT genotype (341 ± 41 min, N = 21) completed the 56 km Two Oceans ultra-marathon significantly (P = 0.014) faster than participants with TC and CC genotypes (365 ± 39 min, N = 50). The COL5A1 genotype and age accounted for 19% of performance variance. When the cohort was divided into performance and flexibility quadrants, the T allele was significantly (P = 0.044) over-represented within the fast and inflexible quadrant.


The COL5A1 genotype was found to be significantly associated with performance in a 56 km ultra-endurance run. This study confirms previous findings and it furthers our understanding of the relationships among ROM, COL5A1, and endurance running performance. We continue to speculate that the COL5A1 gene alters muscle-tendon stiffness.

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Erik A. Wikstrom and Patrick O. McKeon

Key Points • Clinical screening of patients with CAI can improve treatment success probability for enhancing dorsiflexion range of motion. • Following screening, posttest probability for treatment success improved as much as 60%. • There is contextual dependence of patient- and clinician

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Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski and Joseph B. Myers

pitch, causing substantial musculoskeletal trauma that is hypothesized to lead to overuse injuries. 5 , 6 Following a pitching bout, the trauma to the shoulder musculature causes considerable muscle shortening and soft tissue stiffness. Internal rotation and total range of motion significantly decrease

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Brittany Mann, Allison H. Gruber, Shane P. Murphy and Carrie L. Docherty

designs that may influence range of motion restriction and ultimately athletic performance. 11 , 12 More specifically, some braces cover more of the forefoot, while others focus the support solely around the talocrural joint. When the forefoot is covered by the ankle brace, more plantar flexion range of

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Paul A. Ullucci, Frank Tudini and Matthew F. Moran

Measurement of cardinal plane cervical range of motion (CROM) is routinely performed in physical therapy. 1 Cardinal plane motion such as cervical flexion and extension is important clinically but has not been found to identify specific limitations in upper cervical mobility that could be causing

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Marissa C. Gradoz, Lauren E. Bauer, Terry L. Grindstaff and Jennifer J. Bagwell

Hip internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM) is an important element of a comprehensive hip examination. 1 It has been suggested that altered hip rotation ROM may be indicative of hip osteoarthritis, 2 femoroacetabular impingement, 3 low back pain, 4 and other hip

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Amandda de Souza, Cristiano Gomes Sanchotene, Cristiano Moreira da Silva Lopes, Jader Alfredo Beck, Affonso Celso Kulevicz da Silva, Suzana Matheus Pereira and Caroline Ruschel

shortening, movement limitations, and biomechanical stresses, which can cause chronic pain. In addition, decreased fascia elasticity reduces the individual’s ability to perform movements with a large range of motion (ROM) 7 and results in asymmetric postures and inefficient movements. 8 These consequences

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Smokey Fermin, Lindsay Larkins, Sarah Beene and David Wetzel

Clinical Scenario Clinicians are commonly tasked with treating patients suffering from range of motion (ROM) deficits, pain, or both. Treatment options intended to increase ROM, decrease pain, and restore function are vast. Often interventions are used that focus on a singular symptom location (eg

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Camila Ximenes Santos, Natália Barros Beltrão, André Luiz Torres Pirauá, João Luiz Quagliotti Durigan, David Behm and Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo

, stretching exercises are widely recommended in rehabilitation programs as a strategy for the improvement of range of motion (ROM). 3 Behm et al 4 in their meta-analysis reported that static stretching can reduce the incidence of musculotendinous injuries especially with explosive or high-velocity actions

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Landon Lempke, Rebecca Wilkinson, Caitlin Murray and Justin Stanek

Clinical Scenario Stretching exercises are commonly prescribed during warm-up and cool-down protocols, strength and conditioning training programs, and rehabilitation programs. Stretching is applied for the purposes of injury prevention, increasing joint range of motion (ROM), and increasing muscle