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Justin M. Stanek, Jake Parish, Richard Rainville, and Jeffrey G. Williams

reliability. Clinicians routinely quantify joint range of motion (ROM) as part of a comprehensive orthopedic evaluation and/or as a preventative screen. Historically, clinicians have relied on the universal goniometer to assess joint ROM and, based on their reliability, the universal goniometer is often

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James C. Brown, Caron-Jayne Miller, Michael Posthumus, Martin P. Schwellnus, and Malcolm Collins


Endurance running performance is a multifactorial phenotype that is strongly associated with running economy. Sit and reach range of motion (SR ROM) is negatively associated with running economy, suggesting that reduced SR ROM is advantageous for endurance running performance. The COL5A1 gene has been associated with both endurance running performance and SR ROM in separate cohorts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether COL5A1 is associated with ultra-marathon running performance and whether this relationship could be partly explained by prerace SR ROM.


Seventy-two runners (52 male, 20 female) were recruited from the 56 km Two Oceans ultra-marathon and were assessed for prerace SR ROM. The cohort was genotyped for the COL5A1 BsfUI restriction fragment length polymorphism, and race times were collected after the event.


Participants with a TT genotype (341 ± 41 min, N = 21) completed the 56 km Two Oceans ultra-marathon significantly (P = 0.014) faster than participants with TC and CC genotypes (365 ± 39 min, N = 50). The COL5A1 genotype and age accounted for 19% of performance variance. When the cohort was divided into performance and flexibility quadrants, the T allele was significantly (P = 0.044) over-represented within the fast and inflexible quadrant.


The COL5A1 genotype was found to be significantly associated with performance in a 56 km ultra-endurance run. This study confirms previous findings and it furthers our understanding of the relationships among ROM, COL5A1, and endurance running performance. We continue to speculate that the COL5A1 gene alters muscle-tendon stiffness.

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Erik A. Wikstrom and Patrick O. McKeon

Key Points • Clinical screening of patients with CAI can improve treatment success probability for enhancing dorsiflexion range of motion. • Following screening, posttest probability for treatment success improved as much as 60%. • There is contextual dependence of patient- and clinician

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Alison M. Gardiner-Shires and Cristina B. Seffrin

Key Points ▸ For healthy patients, there is moderate-quality evidence to support the short-term use of instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization for improving ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. ▸ Instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization can now be viewed as a viable treatment technique for

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Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski, and Joseph B. Myers

pitch, causing substantial musculoskeletal trauma that is hypothesized to lead to overuse injuries. 5 , 6 Following a pitching bout, the trauma to the shoulder musculature causes considerable muscle shortening and soft tissue stiffness. Internal rotation and total range of motion significantly decrease

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Jeffrey G. Williams, Lauryn Darnall, and Conrad Schumann

Key Points ▸ Spinal range of motion among players is suspected to be compensatory to tightness in the posterior shoulder. ▸ No studies have tested this relationship. ▸ No relationship was observed between thoracolumbar and glenohumeral ranges of motion. Throwing a baseball demands properly

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Lauren E. Schroeder, Rachel L. Tatarski, and Joshua T. Weinhandl

injure their ACL in their prospective study. It has been recently indicated that decreased ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) may lead to both sagittal and frontal plane excursions during landing in order to compensate for sagittal plane restrictions at the ankle. 14 – 17 Specifically, decreased

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Keramat Ullah Keramat and Mohammad Naveed Babar

hypothesized to affect the shoulder range of motion. The purpose of this research was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of a novel and specific SA (SAS [serratus anterior stretch]) stretch on the range of motion of the shoulder joint in healthy subjects. Methodology Study Design A single group quasi

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Conner Howard, Alexis Kahnt, Jennifer L. Volberding, and Jay Dawes

anatomical structure of the shoulder joint allows for a significant range of motion (ROM) compared with other joints. 9 While this extensive ROM is beneficial, it can be accompanied by joint instability and an increased risk for injury. 3 , 10 – 15 Shoulder injuries often result in pain, stiffness, and

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José Pedro Correia, João R. Vaz, Erik Witvrouw, and Sandro R. Freitas

). However, an important aspect which is often overlooked in these studies is ensuring the desired range of motion (ROM) is achieved and remains unaltered throughout the task when visual/tactile feedback is not available, nor feasible. This factor is crucial since the ROM of fast movements alters the agonist