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Emerson Franchini, Monica Y. Takito, Rodrigo M. da Silva, Seihati A. Shiroma, Lance Wicks and Ursula F. Julio

Purpose:

To determine the optimal interval between competitions for success in the different events of the judo world tour.

Methods:

A total of 20,916 female and 29,900 male competition participations in the judo world-tour competitions held between January 2009 and December 2015 were analyzed, considering the dependent variable, winning a medal, and the independent variables, levels of competition.

Results:

There was an increased probability of winning a medal when the interval was in the 10- to 13-wk range for both male and female athletes competing at Grand Prix, Continental-Championship, and World-Championship events, whereas for Grand Slam, only men had an increased probability of winning a medal in this interval range. Furthermore, men had increased probability of podium positions in Continental Championship, World Master, and Olympic Games when the interval was longer than 14 wk.

Conclusion:

Optimal interval period between successive competitions varies according to competition level and sex; shorter intervals (6–9 wk) were better for female athletes competing at the lowest competition level (Continental Open), but for most of the competitions, the 10- to 13-wk interval was detected as optimal for both male and female athletes (Grand Prix, Continental Championship, and World Championship), whereas for the ranking-based qualified male competitions (ie, Masters and Olympic Games), a longer period (>14 wk) is needed.

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Rita M. Malcata, Tom J. Vandenbogaerde and Will G. Hopkins

There is a need for fair measures of country sport performance that include athletes who do not win medals.

Purpose:

To develop a measure of country performance based on athlete ranks in the sport of swimming.

Methods:

Annual top-150 ranks in Olympic pool-swimming events were downloaded for 1990 through 2011. For each athlete of a given rank, a score representing the athlete’s performance potential was estimated as the proportion of athletes of that rank who ever achieved top rank. A country’s scores were calculated by summing its athletes’ scores over all 32 events. Reliability and convergent validity were assessed via year-to-year correlations and correlations with medal counts at major competitions. The method was also applied to ranks at the 2012 Olympics to evaluate countries’ swimming performance.

Results:

The performance score of an athlete of a given rank was closely approximated by 1/rank. This simpler score has 1 practical interpretation: An athlete ranked 7th (for example) has a chance of 1/7 of ever achieving top rank; for purposes of evaluating country performance, 7 such athletes are equivalent to 1 athlete of the top rank. Country scores obtained by summing 1/rank of the country’s athletes had high reliability and validity. This approach produced scores for 168 countries at the Olympics, whereas only 17 countries won medals.

Conclusions:

The authors used the sport of swimming to develop a fair and inclusive measure representing a country’s performance potential. This measure should be suitable for assessing countries in any sports with world rankings or with athletes at major competitions.

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Wonseok (Eric) Jang, Yong Jae Ko, Hee Youn Kim and Seung Hoon Jeong

The purpose of the current exploratory study was twofold: First, to outline current trends in athlete endorsement in the golf industry, and second, to discuss specific patterns of athlete endorsement in practice by considering an athlete’s world ranking and product type (low vs. high involvement and informational vs. transformational products). The results indicate that firms in 23 different types of industries are currently using professional golfers as athlete endorsers to position their products in their target markets. Specifically, the results of correspondence analysis indicate that highly ranked golfers tend to endorse high-involved, expensive, and informational products, while both highly ranked and lowly ranked golfers are similarly used as endorsers for low-involved, inexpensive, and transformational products. Implication, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.

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Aaron Manzanares, Ruperto Menayo and Francisco Segado

fixations inside the boat and a less active visual behavior ( Pluijms et al., 2013 ). The aim of this research was to examine the visual search strategy of sailors at different positions in the rankings and to identify differences in the visual behavior of both groups over a protocol of race starts in a

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Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico and Ellen Armstrong

record could easily be expected to compete for a gold medal and hold such expectations as realistic. In contrast, an athlete who barely made her Paralympic team and had a prior year world ranking of 100 would likely not expect to medal at the Paralympics. Hence, a second important influence on happiness

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Arthur H. Bossi, Ciaran O’Grady, Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield and James G. Hopker

– 24 lap and overall rankings were explored. Table 3 Study Sample (Finishers; n = 329) and Excluded Individuals (LAP/DNF/DNS/DSQ; n = 138) Race Finishers LAP/DNF/DNS/DSQ 2016 M 41 20 2016 F 38 1 2015 M 35 25 2015 F 44 2 2014 M 42 19 2014 F 41 3 2013 M 32 13 2013 F 25 7 2012 M 24 40 2012 F 31 8

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Gareth N. Sandford, Simon Pearson, Sian V. Allen, Rita M. Malcata, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross and Paul B. Laursen

.5, ±–0.4 s; moderate difference, 62% possibly, 38% trivial ). Figure 1 —Lap differentials for 800-m medalists. A negative value represents a faster first lap. *Osaka 2007 value representative of gold medalist only due to incomplete footage. Figure  2 describes the relationship between world ranking

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Stein G.P. Menting, Marco J. Konings, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser and Florentina J. Hettinga

it would be interesting to study pacing behavior of youth athletes in a head-to-head competition type sport, involving direct competition against multiple opponents where relative rankings are the main determinant for winning. The aim of this study was to answer the question: Is there a difference in

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Corbin A. Hedt, S. Brett Holland, Bradley S. Lambert, Joshua D. Harris and Patrick C. McCulloch

analyzed was nominal and ordinal. SPSS Statistics© (version 20.0; IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY) was used for all statistical analyses. Physical therapist experience levels were categorized as <1 year, 1–5 years, 6–15 years, and 15+ years (Q3; Appendix ) for group comparison. For ranking-based questions (Q8

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Luis Rodriguez and Santiago Veiga

were characterized in each race lap by indicating the absolute position and relative ranking of each swimmer per lap and by calculating the average swimming velocity (in m/s), the percentage change in velocity relative to the first 2.5-km lap (in m/s), 18 and the swimming pace (time per 100 m