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Lee-Ann Sharp, Ken Hodge and Steve Danish

The purpose of this investigation was to; (a) examine what experienced SPCs perceived to be the necessary components of the sport psychology consulting relationship, and (b) examine individual contributions of the SPC and client to the consulting relationship. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit 10 experienced SPCs (8 male and 2 female, M age = 50.44 years, M years consulting experience = 21.67 years) who held current sport psychology accreditation/certification and who had considerable consulting experience. Following individual interviews, extensive content analysis revealed that the sport psychology consulting relationship was reflective of (a) rapport, (b) respect, (c) trust, (d) a partnership, and (e) a positive impact on the client. Members of the consulting relationship made individual contributions to the relationship; SPCs contributed; (a) honesty, (b) commitment, (c) knowledge and expertise, (d) counseling skills, and (e) professional ethical behavior. With clients contributing; (a) openness to change, (b) honesty, and (c) willingness to work.

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Pierre-Olaf Schut and Antoine Marsac

aériennes (parapente, BASE jump) a modifié le rapport à la pratique du vol libre. Certains décollages depuis de hauts sommets ont engendré une bascule de l’intérêt du pratiquant. L’ascension s’est effacée au profit de la descente par les voies aériennes. L’exploit réside désormais dans le contrôle et plus l

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Stephen J. Bull

This article presents a case study describing the contribution of a sport psychology consultant to an ultra-distance runner’s attempt to complete 500 miles (800 kilometers) in 20 days through the deserts of North America. The contribution can be considered in four phases that provide a descriptive framework for the role of a sport psychology consultant: (a) establishing a rapport with the athlete, (b) formulating a psychological profile, (c) evaluating the demands of the athletic pursuit and planning an appropriate mental training program, and (d) ongoing evaluation of progress and crisis intervention.

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Jean-Francis Gréhaigne, Paul Godbout and Daniel Bouthier

The debate regarding the teaching of sport and games appears to be more complex than a matter of technical versus tactical approaches. The authors identify facets of the debate. One of these facets concerns the undifferentiated use of the terms tactics and strategy. The authors argue that these two concepts need to be clarified if decision-making and critical-thinking are to be encouraged on the part of the students. A framework is put forward for the analysis of the functioning of team sports. The framework includes: (a) an overview of the internal logic of team sports based on two essential features, the rapport of strength and the competency network; (b) an operational definition of strategy and tactics as they relate to the internal logic of team sports; and (c) nine principles underlying tactics and strategy and presented as potential guides for teachers and students in the teaching-learning of team sports and games.

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Carey J. Snyder

The effects of leader behavior and organizational climate on the job satisfaction of intercollegiate coaches were analyzed. The 117 subjects represented 17 California colleges and universities. The instruments used in data collection were the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire, and the Job Descriptive Index. Statistical analysis revealed that the athletic director’s behavior and the climate had direct and indirect effects on job satisfaction. The degree of consideration shown by the athletic director had a strong effect on satisfaction with work and supervision. Coaches’ feelings of detachment and the lack of administrative support showed a negative relationship to satisfaction with work and supervision. Path analytic procedures showed male and female subjects differing with respect to the factors shaping job satisfaction. Consideration helped female coaches feel integrated into the department and supported by the administration. Male subjects viewed consideration as important to the development of morale and rapport with colleagues.

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Andy Wright and Jean Côté

The purpose of this study was to examine the development of six leader-athletes. In-depth qualitative interviews were used to explore the various activities that leader athletes engaged in from an early age as well as the roles and influences that peers, coaches, and parents played within these activities. Results indicated that leadership development in sport focused on developing four central components: high skill, strong work ethic, enriched cognitive sport knowledge, and good rapport with people. The types of activities engaged in throughout development as well as receiving feedback, acknowledgement, support, cognitive engagement, mature conversations with adults, and physical encounters with older peers are important social influences that can play an instrumental role in the formation of these four central tenets.

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Jill Tracey

Context:

Health professionals (ie, physical therapists, athletic trainers) can play an integral role in the psychological recovery from injury.

Objective:

To examine health professionals’ perceptions of the roles they play and their influence on the psychological recovery of their clients.

Design:

A qualitative design using semistructured interviews that were transcribed and analyzed using interpretational analyses to reveal themes.

Setting:

4 rehabilitation clinics specializing in sport- and physical-activity-related injuries.

Participants:

18 participants (17 physical therapists, 1 athletic trainer) with a mean age of 36 years.

Results:

Using thematic coding of the interview data, general-dimension data themes identified were centered on the roles of rapport builder, educator, and communicator. Health professionals perceive that they play important roles in the psychological recovery of their clients in spite of a lack of professional training in psychology and strive to create a caring and supportive environment. Results demonstrate the perceptions of the roles they play and the influence they have on the psychological component of the recovery process.

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Anastasiya Khomutova and Alex Channon

This paper explores the representation of female athletes within the Legends Football League (LFL; formerly ‘Lingerie Football League’) in 2013. Specifically, the study seeks to understand the vision of women’s sport, and female athletes, which the LFL propagates. Drawing on a combined content and semiotic analysis of the commentary and visuals featured in 26 LFL matches broadcast online in 2013, our data suggests that the LFL presents apparently conflicting images of sexualized, but ‘powerful’ female athletes. We discuss these data relative to competing interpretive approaches to female sexuality in sports media, and join other sports media scholars in advocating audience reception research as a necessary next step to grasping this emergent sport’s significance. Cet article examine la représentation d’athlètes féminines au sein de la Legends Football League (« Ligue de football des légendes » ou LFL, anciennement la « Lingerie Football League » ou « Ligue de football en lingerie ») en 2013. L’étude cherche spécifiquement à comprendre la vision du sport féminin et des athlètes féminines que la LFL propage. En se basant sur une analyse de contenu et sémiotique des commentaires et images trouvés dans les retransmissions en ligne de 26 matchs de la LFL en 2013, les données suggèrent que la LFL présente des images apparemment contradictoires d’athlètes sexualisées mais « puissantes ». Nous discutons ces données par rapport à d’autres approches interprétatives pour étudier la sexualité féminine dans les médias sportifs. Nous nous joignons aussi à d’autres chercheurs sur les médias sportifs en prônant la recherche sur la réception de l’audience comme prochaine étape afin de mieux saisir la signification de ce sport émergent.

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Megan D. Granquist, Leslie Podlog, Joanna R. Engel and Aubrey Newland

Context:

Adherence to sport-injury rehabilitation protocols may be pivotal in ensuring successful rehabilitation and return-to-play outcomes.

Objectives:

To investigate athletic trainers' perspectives related to the degree to which rehabilitation adherence is an issue in collegiate athletic training settings, gain insight from certified athletic trainers regarding the factors contributing to rehabilitation nonadherence (underadherence and overadherence), and ascertain views on the most effective means for promoting adherence.

Design:

Crosssectional, mixed methods.

Setting:

Collegiate athletic training in the United States.

Participants:

Certified athletic trainers (n = 479; 234 male, 245 female).

Main Outcome Measures:

Online survey consisting of 3 questions regarding rehabilitation adherence, each followed by an open-ended comments section. Descriptive statistics were calculated for quantitative items; hierarchical content analyses were conducted for qualitative items.

Results:

Most (98.3%) participants reported poor rehabilitation adherence to be a problem (1.7% = no problem, 29.2% = minor problem, 49.7% = problem, 19.4% = major problem), while most (98.96%) participants reported that they had athletes who exhibited poor rehabilitation adherence (1% = never, 71.4% = occasionally, 22.5% = often, 5% = always). In addition, the majority (97.91%) of participants reported that overadherence (eg, doing too much, failing to comply with activity restrictions, etc) was at least an occasional occurrence (2.1% = never, 69.3% = occasionally, 26.3% = often, 1.9% = always). Hierarchical content analyses regarding the constructs of poor adherence and overadherence revealed 4 major themes: the motivation to adhere, the development of good athletic trainer–athlete rapport and effective communication, athletic trainers' perception of the coaches' role in fostering adherence, and the influence of injury- or individual- (eg, injury severity, sport type, gender) specific characteristics on rehabilitation adherence.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that participants believe that underadherence (and to a lesser extent overadherence) is a frequent occurrence in collegiate athletic training settings. Strategies for enhancing rehabilitation adherence rates and preventing overadherence may therefore be important for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes.

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Paul J. MacArthur, James R. Angelini, Andrew C. Billings and Lauren R. Smith

An empirical analysis was conducted focusing on how the United States-based NBC and the Canada-based CBC portrayed male figure skaters in comparison with their male Winter Olympic counterparts on the networks’ primetime 2014 Olympic broadcasts. Using 100% of all primetime broadcast content as a universe of investigation, NBC’s and the CBC’s commentary about male figure skaters was compared with the aggregate of all other male Winter Olympians in the areas of success, failure and personality/physicality. Analysis of NBC’s primetime coverage of the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games revealed five (5) significantly-different dialogue trends between male figure skaters and the aggregate of other male Winter Olympians, while analysis of the CBC’s primetime coverage revealed seven (7) significantly-different dialogue trends between male figure skaters and the aggregate of other male Winter Olympians. Differences were not consistent from network to network, showing that NBC and CBC treated male figure skaters differently, yet in significantly different manners by network. Insights are offered on the theoretical and applied levels.

Une analyse empirique a été conduite pour savoir comment la chaîne américaine NBC et la chaîne canadienne CBC présentaient les patineurs sur glace par rapport à leurs homologues masculins participant aux Jeux Olympiques d’Hiver lors de leurs prime times en 2014. En utilisant 100% du contenu des prime times diffusés comme terrain d’investigation, les commentaires de NBC et de CBC concernant les patineurs sur glace ont été comparés à ceux, agrégés, de tous les autres olympiens masculins dans le domaine de la réussite, de l’échec, de la personnalité et du physique. L’analyse de la couverture des Jeux Olympiques 2014 de Sotchi en prime time sur NBC a révélé cinq types de discours significativement différents entre les patineurs et l’ensemble des autres olympiens alors que l’analyse de la couverture en prime time du CBC en a révélé sept. Les différences ne sont pas similaires d’une chaîne à l’autre, ce qui montre que NBC et CBC ont traité les patineurs sur glace différemment. Des éclairages sont apportés aux niveaux théoriques et appliqués.