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Martin H. Rose, Annemette Løkkegaard, Stig Sonne-Holm and Bente R. Jensen

We investigated lower-extremity isometric tremor Approximate Entropy (irregularity), torque steadiness and rate of force development (RFD) and their associations to muscle activation strategy during isometric knee extensions in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and 15 neurologically healthy matched controls performed isometric maximal contractions (extension/flexion) as well as steady submaximal and powerful isometric knee extensions. The patients with PD showed decreased isometric tremor irregularity. Torque steadiness was reduced in PD and the patients had increased muscle coactivation. A markedly lower RFD was found in PD and the decreased RFD correlated with reduced agonist muscle activation. Furthermore, patient RFD correlated with the Movement-Disorder-Society-Unified-Parkinson’s-Disease-Rating-Scale 3 (motor part) scores. We concluded that both knee isometric tremor Approximate Entropy and torque steadiness clearly differentiate between patients with PD and healthy controls. Furthermore, severely compromised RFD was found in patients with PD and was associated with decreased agonist muscle activation.

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Talyene G.C. Corrêa, Stephanie V.S. Donato, Kauê C.A. Lima, Ronaldo V. Pereira, Mehmet Uygur and Paulo Barbosa de Freitas

–.9] Note . GF Max  = maximum grip force; RGFD Max  = maximum rate of grip force development; RFD-SF = rate of force development scaling factor; YMA = younger male adult; YFA = younger female adult; OMA = older male adult; OFA = older female adult. Furthermore, the results revealed that females produced

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Maria Bellumori, Slobodan Jaric and Christopher A. Knight

Physical quickness is less in older adults with implications for fall prevention, movement initiation, and activities of daily living. The purpose was to compare control of rapid contractions in young and older adults within two diverse muscle groups: powerful elbow extensors (EE) and dexterous index finger abductors (IFA). Most-rapid force pulses to a variety of levels were recorded and peak force and rate of force development (RFD) were analyzed with linear regression. The resulting slope represents the dependent variable of interest, the RFD-scaling factor (RFD-SF). RFD-SF of EE and IFA strongly correlated both overall (r = .87, p < .01) and separately in young (r = .60, p < .05) and older (r = .77, p < .01) adults. RFD-SF values were different between muscle groups (F 1,28 = 19.1, p < .001) and also less in elderly (F 1,28 = 32.6, p < .001). We conclude that RFD-SF provides a sensitive assessment of muscle quickness that can be used to evaluate neuromuscular function in aging humans.

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Kevin M. Carroll, Jake R. Bernards, Caleb D. Bazyler, Christopher B. Taber, Charles A. Stuart, Brad H. DeWeese, Kimitake Sato and Michael H. Stone

Resistance training (RT) has repeatedly shown the capability to enhance physical performance characteristics, such as maximal strength 1 – 4 and rate of force development (RFD). 5 Maximal strength and RFD are critically important for athletes, particularly in strength–power sports. 6 , 7

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Danny Lum and Abdul Rashid Aziz

assess maximum force production and rate of force development (RFD) of the muscular system of both the lower 14 – 18 and upper 19 – 21 limbs. Peak forces (PFs) achieved from various isometric tests have been shown to be significantly correlated with sprint kayaking performance. 3 , 9 For example, van

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Thomas Dos’Santos, Paul A. Jones, Jonathan Kelly, John J. McMahon, Paul Comfort and Christopher Thomas

Skeletal-muscle function can be evaluated using force-time curves generated during dynamic and isometric activities. Peak force (PF) and peak rate of force development (RFD) are commonly assessed 1 – 5 and have been reported to relate to various athletic performance tasks including baseball

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Lasse Ishøi, Per Aagaard, Mathias F. Nielsen, Kasper B. Thornton, Kasper K. Krommes, Per Hölmich and Kristian Thorborg

reach high force production during a short period of time, defined as the rate of force development, 15 may be a substantial factor for sprint performance. 16 The importance of rate of force development for sprint performance has been highlighted in a previous study observing strong negative

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Ty B. Palmer, Jose G. Pineda and Rachel M. Durham

Strength-based performance characteristics, such as peak force (PF) and rate of force development (RFD), are commonly measured to assess functional ability, 1 discriminate between athletes of different performance levels, 2 and monitor neuromuscular performance changes in response to training or

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Roger O. Kollock, Bonnie Van Lunen, Stacie I. Ringleb and James Onate

The ability to produce force rapidly and to maintain it is essential to sports performance. Although rapid force production and endurance are indispensable characteristics of optimal health and performance, assessing these qualities of strength is difficult because of clinician time constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine if peak force is a predictor of rate of force production and strength endurance. The results indicated peak force is a predictor of rate of force development, but not strength endurance. Clinicians should assess both maximum strength and endurance to gain a more complete picture of lower extremity strength deficits.

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Michael H. Stone, William A. Sands, Kyle C. Pierce, Michael W. Ramsey and G. Gregory Haff


To assess the effects of manipulating the loading of successive sets of midthigh clean pulls on the potentiation capabilities of 7 international-level US weightlifters (4 men, 3 women).


Isometric and dynamic peak-force characteristics were measured with a force plate at 500 Hz. Velocity during dynamic pulls was measured using 2 potentiometers that were suspended from the top of the right and left sides of the testing system and attached to both ends of the bar. Five dynamic-performance trials were used (in the following order) as the potentiation protocol: women at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 80 kg and men at 60, 140, 180, 220, and 140 kg. Trials 2 vs 5 were specifically analyzed to assess potentiation capabilities. Isometric midthigh pulls were assessed for peak force and rate of force development. Dynamic lifts were assessed for peak force (PF), peak velocity (PV), peak power (PP), and rate of force development (RFD).


Although all values (PF, PV, PP, and RFD) were higher postpotentiation, the only statistically higher value was found for PV (ICCα = .95, P = .011, η2 = .69).


Results suggest that manipulating set-loading configuration can result in a potentiation effect when heavily loaded sets are followed by a lighter set. This potentiation effect was primarily characterized by an increase in the PV in elite weightlifters.