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James Dimmock, David Simich, Timothy Budden, Leslie Podlog, Mark Beauchamp, and Ben Jackson

reactance theory ( Brehm, 1966 ; Brehm & Brehm, 1988 ), controlling language may induce the perception of threats to one’s freedoms (i.e., the manner in which an individual chooses to act, think, and feel), which may shape responses to a given stimuli and encourage appraisals that reflect this reactance

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Francesco Campa, Hannes Gatterer, Henry Lukaski, and Stefania Toselli

Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has been suggested to be capable of assessing fluid changes under various conditions. 1 – 4 BIVA 5 classifies changes in hydration status by solely considering impedance components (resistance [ R ] and reactance [ X c ]). One limitation of

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Jeroen B.J. Smeets, Leonie Oostwoud Wijdenes, and Eli Brenner

We begin our response by clarifying the concept of detection, and explaining why this is needed for initiating, but not for adjusting a movement. We present a simulation to illustrate this difference. Several commentators referred to studies with results that might seem in conflict with our proposal that movement adjustments have short latencies because there is no need to detect anything. In the last part of our response, we discuss how we interpret these studies as being in line with our proposal.

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Marko Milic, Danica Janicijevic, Aleksandar Nedeljkovic, Ivan Cuk, Milos Mudric, and Amador García-Ramos

instance, Do and Yiou ( 1999 ) noted movement velocity and the ability to recognize the best time to initiate the attack as key elements for achieving a successful attack performance. Roi and Bianchedi ( 2008 ) suggested that once the fencer has identified the relevant information, it is important to react

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João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Analiza M. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro dos Santos, Paolo M. Cunha, Matheus A. Nascimento, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Melissa Antunes, Letícia T. Cyrino, and Edilson S. Cyrino

), commonly measured by the bioimpedance-derived values termed as resistance and reactance. The relationship between resistance and reactance can be expressed as the phase angle (PhA) score, which represents the tissue conductivity and cellular health. Some recent studies have shown that PhA is associated

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Alex S. Ribeiro, Matheus A. Nascimento, Brad J. Schoenfeld, João Pedro Nunes, Andreo F. Aguiar, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha, Steven J. Fleck, and Edilson S. Cyrino

), and reactance (Xc), and subsequently, the PhA was calculated as arc tangent (Xc/ R ) × 180°/π, which is a validated method for evaluating these measures ( Norman et al., 2012 ). All spectral bioelectrical impedance measurements were performed from 6:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. Before measurement, the

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Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke, and Tim Woodman

experiments. Specifically, we asked participants to react to two different colored balls, as they rolled down a chute, a target (e.g., red) that was to be caught and a nontarget (e.g., blue) that was to be avoided. If Wegner’s theory of ironic processes of mental control holds for externally paced tasks, we

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Elizabeth B. Delia

despite no recognition by Boeheim, the university, or the NCAA. Concurrently, national and local media acknowledged the unrecognized 1,000th win, with many reporting that the sanctions imposed on the program by the NCAA were too severe ( Norlander, 2017 ). Local political leaders reacted similarly

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Anne-Marie Elbe and Ralf Brand

Urine doping controls have become a regular part of athletes’ lives, and approximately one half of all athletes suffer at least once from urination difficulties during these tests. Previous studies could not satisfactorily explain why athletes are affected. This paper examines the relation between urination difficulties during doping controls and psychological reactance. It is assumed that psychological reactance is positively correlated to urination difficulties. The results are based on a study involving 187 German-speaking athletes participating in elite sports at the national team level. In addition to demographic data and information about doping controls, the Psychogenic Urine Retention during Doping Controls Scale (PURDS) and Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS) were used. The results do not confirm our hypothesis and indicate that reactance correlates negatively rather than positively to urination difficulties during doping controls. The results are surprising as they suggest that athletes who show low oppositional potential toward doping rules are most strongly affected. Suggestions for interventions are given.

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Francesco Campa, Catarina N. Matias, Elisabetta Marini, Steven B. Heymsfield, Stefania Toselli, Luís B. Sardinha, and Analiza M. Silva

conditions. 3 , 4 The bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), described in detail by Piccoli et al, 5 Lukaski and Piccoli, 6 and Buffa et al, 7 considers the impedance components (resistance [R] and reactance [Xc]) independently of regression predictions of fluid volumes or assumptions about the