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Kate Sanders, Carl M. Maresh, Kevin D. Ballard, Brent C. Creighton, J. Luke Pryor, William J. Kraemer, Jeff S. Volek and Jeff M. Anderson

Compared with their physically active peers, overweight sedentary postmenopausal women demonstrate impaired vascular endothelial function (VEF), substantially increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Habitual exercise is associated with improved VEF and reduced CVD risk. The purpose of this study was to compare brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of VEF, in overweight, postmenopausal women who were physically active (EX: n = 17, BMI: 29.3 ± 3.11 kg/m2) or sedentary (CON: n = 8, BMI: 30.3 ± 3.6 kg/m2). Anthropomorphic measures were similar in both groups (P > .05). FMD was significantly greater in EX (10.24 ± 2.36%) versus CON (6.60 ± 2.18%) (P < .002). FMD was not significantly correlated with estimated VO2max (EX: r = .17, P = .52; CON: r = .20, P = .60) but was negatively associated with percent body fat in EX group (EX: r = -.48, P = .05; CON: r = .41, P = .31). These results are consistent with the positive effects of habitual exercise on VEF in overweight postmenopausal women.

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Saowaluck Suntraluck, Hirofumi Tanaka and Daroonwan Suksom

postocclusion popliteal artery diameter ( Naidu, Rajasekhar, & Latheef, 2011 ). Microvascular function Postocclusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) was measured as an index of cutaneous microvascular function using the laser Doppler flowmetry (DRT4 MoorLAB, Moor Instrument, UK). Laser Doppler probes were attached to

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Austin T. Robinson, Adriana Mazzuco, Ahmad S. Sabbahi, Audrey Borghi-Silva and Shane A. Phillips

calculated as (blood flow velocity [in cm/s] × 4)/blood vessel diameter (in mm) as previously described. The trapezoidal method was used to calculate the AUC shear from cuff deflation to the time point corresponding to peak arterial diameter. Bsl = baseline condition; RH = reactive hyperemia, the period

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Lauren Anne Lipker, Caitlyn Rae Persinger, Bradley Steven Michalko and Christopher J. Durall

Increased recruitment has been shown to cause stronger muscle contractions leading to ischemia followed by reactive hyperemia. 7 However, Ohta et al 2 found no significant differences between type 1 and type 2 fiber ratios preintervention and postintervention via muscle biopsies. 2 Furthermore, there was

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Ali M. McManus, Nathan R. Sletten and Daniel J. Green

.3)** <.001 <.05  OSI, AU 0.112 (0.07) 0.001 (0.003)** 0.032 (0.023)** 0.097 (0.061) 0.050 (0.011)** 0.031 (0.034)** <.001 .61 Reactive hyperemia  Peak diameter, mm 4.58 (0.42) 5.00 (0.49)** 4.64 (0.36) 4.64 (0.50) 4.84 (0.54)** 4.67 (0.54) <.001 .07  Time to peak diameter, s 50.8 (17.4) 104.2 (35.3)** 56

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Jessica M. Stephens, Ken Sharpe, Christopher Gore, Joanna Miller, Gary J. Slater, Nathan Versey, Jeremiah Peiffer, Rob Duffield, Geoffrey M. Minett, David Crampton, Alan Dunne, Christopher D. Askew and Shona L. Halson

participant moves between the cold water and the warmer air. This frequent change may have led to repeated reactive hyperemia responses where both skin and muscle blood flow increases when the participant moves out of the pool after a period of cold-induced vasoconstriction and ischemia which occurs during