, & Armstrong, 2018 ). However, the primary mandate for early childhood education is to prepare children to enter and thrive in elementary school, that is, to demonstrate school readiness, not to prevent obesity ( Head Start Resource Center, 2011 ). Therefore, the role of physical development as an integrated
Paul M. Wright, Lauriece L. Zittel, Tawanda Gipson and Crystal Williams
Mathieu Lacome, Ben Simpson, Nick Broad and Martin Buchheit
players’ fitness, fatigue, and/or readiness to perform. 1 However, typical metrics such as distance covered in different speed zones or heart rate (HR)-related variables analyzed in isolation are often more influenced by contextual variables than players’ training status per se. 2 As such, there is
Ashleigh J. Sowle, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Mack C. Shelley and Warren D. Franke
in an exergaming PA program. This study examined the effects of the LIFE program on PA-related readiness-to-change and self-efficacy (defined as the confidence and belief that one can make the recommended behavior changes). Methods LIFE Program Overview The LIFE program ( Strand et al., 2014 ) was
Bradley J. Cardinal
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between inactive older adults’ physical activity readiness (based on the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire [PARQ]) and several biometric, demographic, and physical activity indices. Participants were 181 (91 female, 90 male) inactive 60- to 89-year-old adults (M age = 70.2 ± 6.6 yr.). Self-report measures were completed and body mass index (BMI) and VO2max were estimated. BMI, weight, and VO2max were significantly associated with physical activity readiness. There was no significant association among 10-year age cohort and physical activity readiness. The blood pressure question excluded the largest number of participants (42%). Overall, 45.3% of the participants appeared to be healthy enough to begin a low to moderate physical activity program. Preliminary evidence suggests the PARQ may be a useful method of identifying older adults for whom low to moderate physical activity participation is safe.
David I. Anderson and Alicia Rodriguez
Longitudinal records were examined for 272 children who started formal swimming lessons at 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 years of age. The groups of children were compared on the number of lessons and number of months required to reach three levels of swimming proficiency and the ages at which these levels were reached. Significant differences were found in the ages at which each proficiency level was attained. The younger the age at which children started lessons, the younger they were when they attained Level 1 proficiency. In contrast, the ages at which Level 2 and Level 3 proficiency were attained were more similar, particularly for the younger starters. Significant differences were found for the number of lessons and number of months required to reach Level 1 proficiency and to progress from Level 1 to Level 2 proficiency. The younger the starting age the more lessons and months required to reach each proficiency level. The pattern of findings suggests that the optimum age to begin formal swimming lessons is between 5 and 7 years of age. The findings are discussed relative to the literature on readiness and sensitive periods for learning.
Kevin G. Thompson and Stephen W. Garland
Competitive swimmers routinely undertake a 7 X 200-m incremental step test to evaluate their fitness and readiness to compete.1 An exercise protocol more closely replicating competition swimming speeds may provide further insight into the swimmer’s physiological and technical readiness for competition. This case study reports data over a 3-year period from 11 Race Readiness Tests, which were completed, in addition to the 7 X 200-m test, as an attempt to provide the swimmer and coach with a fuller assessment. For this individual, data provided objective information from which to assess training status and race readiness following a transition from 200-m to 100-m race training. Data also raised a question as to whether a 100-m maximal effort 10 minutes before another one actually enhances performance owing to a priming effect.
Leslie Podlog, Sophie M. Banham, Ross Wadey and James C. Hannon
The purpose of this study was to examine athlete experiences and understandings of psychological readiness to return to sport following a serious injury. A focus group and follow-up semistructured interviews were conducted with seven English athletes representing a variety of sports. Three key attributes of readiness were identified including: (a) confidence in returning to sport; (b) realistic expectations of one’s sporting capabilities; and (c) motivation to regain previous performance standards. Numerous precursors such as trust in rehabilitation providers, accepting postinjury limitations, and feeling wanted by significant others were articulated. Results indicate that psychological readiness is a dynamic, psychosocial process comprised of three dimensions that increase athletes’ perceived likelihood of a successful return to sport following injury. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research and practical implications are offered.
Luke M. Mueller, Ben A. Bloomer and Chris J. Durall
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are associated with a lengthy recovery time, decreased performance, and an increased rate of reinjury. To improve performance of the injured knee, affected athletes often undergo surgical reconstruction and rehabilitation. Determining when an athlete is ready to safely return to play (RTP), however, can be challenging for clinicians. Although various outcome measures have been recommended, their ability to predict a safe RTP is questionable.
Focused Clinical Question:
Which outcome measures should be used to determine readiness to return to play after ACL reconstruction?
Bradley J. Cardinal and Marita K. Cardinal
The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PARQ) offers a safe preexercise screening of participants prior to physical activity involvement. However, the measure seems to screen out a relatively high proportion of apparently healthy older adults. In an attempt to improve this situation, an expert panel convened by Fitness Canada worked to revise the measure (rPARQ). The present study compares the number of exclusions resulting from the original and revised PARQ instruments in older adults (84 men, 85 women; M age 76.5 yrs). The number of participants screened out by the rPARQ decreased significantly (p < .001), from 139 to 105. Agreement between measures was achieved in 78.7% of the participants (Cohen's kappa = .50). In an effort to promote physical activity involvement, researchers and practitioners are encouraged to consider the use of the recently developed rPARQ over the PARQ as a preexercise screening alternative.
Two studies were designed to test the validity of the Mental Readiness Form (MRF; Murphy, Greenspan, Jowdy, and Tammen, 1989) with collegiate athletes. In Study 1, male and female athletes completed the CSAI-2 and the original or a modified MRF within 60 minutes prior to competition. In Study 2, subjects completed two forms of the MRF with slightly different anchor terms, the CSAI-2, trait anxiety measures, and a social desirability scale. Overall, results indicated moderate to strong correlations between corresponding CSAI-2 subscales and MRF items, supporting its concurrent validity. The intercorrelations among MRF items were high, but were similar to the intercorrelations among CSAI-2 subscales. Correlations with trait anxiety also supported the concurrent validity of the MRF. None of the MRF scales or the CSAI-2 were significantly correlated with social desirability. The preliminary analyses in these studies provide initial support for the MRF as a measure of competitive anxiety when expediency is an important concern.