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Timothy J. Gibbons and Marie-Louise Bird

), internal oblique abdominis (IO), and external oblique abdominis (EO). 9 Real-time ultrasound is used extensively in musculoskeletal investigations and has advantages when applied in rehabilitation. 11 Figure 1 —Image of Oov. The primary objective of this study was to compare ultrasound measurements of TrA

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Alya H. Bdaiwi, Tanya Anne Mackenzie, Lee Herrington, Ian Horlsey and Ann Cools

Context:

Compromise to the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) has been reported in subjects with subacromial impingement syndrome when compared with healthy subjects. In clinical practice, patients are taped with the intention of altering scapular position and influencing the AHD. However, research to determine the effects of taping on AHD is exiguous.

Objectives:

To evaluate the effect of ridged taping techniques to increase posterior scapular tilt and upward scapular rotation on the AHD.

Design:

1-group pretest/posttest repeated-measures design.

Setting:

Human performance laboratory.

Participants:

20 asymptomatic participants (10 male and 10 female) age 27 y (SD 8.0 y).

Intervention:

Ridged tapping of the scapula into posterior tilt and upward scapular rotation.

Main Outcome Measure:

Ultrasound measurement of the AHD.

Results:

AHD increased significantly after rigid tape application to the scapula (P < .003) in healthy shoulders in 60° of passive arm abduction.

Conclusion:

Taping techniques applied to the scapula had an immediate effect of increasing the AHD in healthy shoulders in 60° of passive arm abduction. Results suggest that taping for increasing posterior scapular tilt and increasing scapular upward rotation can influence the AHD and is a useful adjunct to rehabilitation in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.

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Pablo Fanlo-Mazas, Elena Bueno-Gracia, Alazne Ruiz de Escudero-Zapico, José Miguel Tricás-Moreno and María Orosia Lucha-López

between time points was 0.66 mm and SD was 1.71). We increased the sample size to 46 to allow dropout during follow-up. Procedures Patellar Position Measurement Using Real-Time Ultrasound Scanning The technique used to measure patellar position was identical to that previously reported by Herrington and

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Sung-min Ha, Oh-yun Kwon, Su-jung Kim and Sung-dae Choung

Context:

A normal breathing pattern while performing the abdominal-hollowing (AH) maneuver or spinal-stabilization exercise is essential for the success of rehabilitation programs and exercises. In previous studies, subjects were given standardized instructions to control the influence of respiration during the AH maneuver. However, the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness during the AH maneuver has not been investigated.

Objective:

To compare abdominal-muscle thickness in subjects performing the AH maneuver under normal and abnormal breathing-pattern conditions and to investigate the effect of breathing pattern on the preferential contraction ratio (PCR) of the transverse abdominis.

Design:

Comparative, repeated-measures experimental study.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

16 healthy subjects (8 male, 8 female) from a university population.

Measurement:

A real-time ultrasound scanner was used to measure abdominal-muscle thickness during normal and abnormal breathing patterns. A paired t test was used to assess the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness and PCR.

Results:

Muscle thickness in the transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles was significantly greater under the normal breathing pattern than under the abnormal pattern (P < .05). The PCR of the transverse abdominis was significantly higher under the normal breathing pattern compared with the abnormal pattern (P < .05).

Conclusion:

The results indicate that a normal breathing pattern is essential for performance of an effective AH maneuver. Thus, clinicians should ensure that patients adopt a normal breathing pattern before performing the AH maneuver and monitor transverse abdominis activation during the maneuver.

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Athanasios Trampas, Anastasia Mpeneka, Vivian Malliou, George Godolias and Periklis Vlachakis

Context:

Previous studies showed improved dynamic-balance (DB) performance after core-stability (CS) exercises in populations with chronic low back pain. Although clinical massage plus exercise is likely to better enhance analgesia than exercise alone, its efficacy on balance remains unclear.

Objective:

To evaluate the immediate effects of CS exercises plus myofascial trigger-point (MTrP) therapy in comparison with CS exercises alone on DB performance, pressure-pain threshold (PPT), and cross-sectional area of active MTrPs in patients with clinical instability of the lumbar spine and chronic myofascial pain syndrome.

Design:

Randomized, assessor-blind, test–retest.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Patients:

10 physically active adults (5 men, 5 women).

Main Outcome Measures:

Single-leg DB performance and side-to-side ratios in 2 planes of motion (frontal, sagittal), as well as PPT and cross-sectional area of active MTrPs, were measured using stabilometry, pressure algometry, and real-time ultrasound scanning, respectively.

Interventions:

The 1st group performed CS exercises alone, whereas the same exercise program was applied in the 2nd group plus cross-fiber friction on active MTrPs (3.5 min/MTrP).

Results:

Within-group statistically and clinically significant differences were observed only for group II in PPT. However, group I also exhibited a large effect size with clinically significant changes from baseline on this outcome. Furthermore, patients in group II clinically improved their balance ratios and differed from group I at posttest in sagittal-plane DB performance of the painful side.

Conclusion:

CS exercises immediately increase the PPT of active MTrPs in physically active adults with clinical instability of the lumbar spine and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. When MTrP therapy is added, side-to-side asymmetries in DB are minimized.

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Connor Burk, Jesse Perry, Sam Lis, Steve Dischiavi and Chris Bleakley

elastography can explicitly quantify mechanical properties of fascial tissues under in vivo conditions. 11 For example, cross-correlation calculations derived from real-time ultrasound has already been used to estimate relative movements of fascial tissue, including sliding of fascial layers and shear strain

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Bin Chen, Yichao Zhao, Xianxin Cao, Guojiong Hu, Lincoln B. Chen and Wenxin Niu

NF , Gee J , Green RA . Measurement of glenohumeral joint translation using real-time ultrasound imaging: a physiotherapist and sonographer intra-rater and inter-rater reliability study . Man Ther . 2016 ; 26 : 110 – 116 . PubMed ID: 27544451 doi:10.1016/j.math.2016.08.001 27544451 10.1016/j

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Yong Wook Kim, Na Young Kim, Won Hyuk Chang and Sang Chul Lee

objective measuring devices such as electromyographic biofeedback units or real-time ultrasound images was not used in our study. To our knowledge, a valid, reliable measure of clinical lumbar stability is not currently available; hence, this specific construct could not be measured. As such, it is

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Ece Acar, Tamer Çankaya and Serkan Öner

of the lower limb . Physical Therapy, 77 ( 2 ), 132 – 142 . PubMed ID: 9037214 doi:10.1093/ptj/77.2.132 10.1093/ptj/77.2.132 John , E. , & Beith , I. ( 2007 ). Can activity within the external abdominal oblique be measured using real-time ultrasound imaging? Clinical Biomechanics, 22 ( 9

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Damien Moore, Adam I. Semciw, Jodie McClelland, Henry Wajswelner and Tania Pizzari

leg) 29 was determined for all participants, 2 bipolar fine-wire intramuscular electrodes were prepared and inserted with the aid of real-time ultrasound imaging (HDI 3000; Advanced Technology Laboratories, Washington, WA) as per previously verified guidelines. 16 , 26 The electrodes for each GMin