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Steve Barrett

activities. 1 However, limited data is available on the reliability and the error of the measurement when monitoring variables in real-time (RT) compared to the postevent download (PED). External load metrics are commonly reported and downloaded immediately after the event. The PED method reduces

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Scott Bonnette, Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Kim D. Barber Foss, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Jed A. Diekfuss and Gregory D. Myer

, neuromuscular training can be augmented by presenting participants with an online feedback display linked to their biomechanics using 3D motion capture software. 45 Such real-time biofeedback has been very effective for gait retraining, 46 – 48 and many of these new technologies have already been implemented

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Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee

game outcomes and consumption emotions. Next, sport consumer emotions have been assessed using retrospective measures instead of real-time-based measure. Several concerns exist with the former method. Real-time-based measures are likely to be more effective than recall-based measures because people can

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Cheryl A. Howe, Kimberly A. Clevenger, Danielle McElhiney, Camille Mihalic and Moira A. Ragan

children’s overall perceptions of PA or sport translate to all sports, games, and physical activities. These findings may mask differences in enjoyment related to specific PA types across these same population subgroups. By contrast, state measurements of PA enjoyment (ie, real-time, momentary emotional

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Pawel R. Golyski, Elizabeth M. Bell, Elizabeth M. Husson, Erik J. Wolf and Brad D. Hendershot

strategy based on vertical ground reaction impulse (vGRI). This variable represents the cumulative load applied vertically to the lower limb throughout stance, but does not require real-time inverse dynamics calculations, establishing a low barrier to adoption. We theorize that vGRI could be an effective

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Lotte L. Lintmeijer, A.J. “Knoek” van Soest, Freek S. Robbers, Mathijs J. Hofmijster and Peter J. Beek

metabolic energy consumption 12 and (2) hardly affected by external factors. From a practical perspective, power output represents an interesting feedback parameter as complementary theoretical and technological advances have made it possible to provide real-time visual feedback on valid power

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Anna M. Ifarraguerri, Danielle M. Torp, Abbey C. Thomas and Luke Donovan

Key Points ▸ Real-time video feedback caused inconsistent alterations in gait in patients with chronic ankle instability. ▸ Efficacy of other clinician cues during video feedback should be determined. ▸ Other gait retraining interventions should be considered when treating patients with chronic

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Marcie Fyock, Nelson Cortes, Alex Hulse and Joel Martin

investigating real-time visual feedback as an intervention choice for the treatment of PFP in adult recreational runners. Focused Clinical Question In adult runners diagnosed with PFP, does gait retraining with real-time visual feedback lead to a decrease in pain? Summary of Search, “Best Evidence” Appraised

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J. Atha, D. Harris, G. West and P.K. Manley

A prototype swimming tachometer is described which consists of a waterproof box housing a battery-powered electronic system linked externally to an opto-electronic velocity transducer. The device is strapped to the hips, where it monitors water flow to produce continuous measurements of two critical variables of swimming performance, namely, velocity and acceleration. These measurements are converted in real time to auditory feedback signals to the subject via an ear plug. Permanent records may be taken simultaneously as an option using a switched external line.

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David J. Sanderson

The purpose of this experiment was to assess the efficacy of using real-time generated computer feedback of a selected biomechanical variable, force, for modifying the pattern-of-force application of inexperienced cyclists while they cycled at a steady rate (60 rpm) and power output (approximately 112 watts). Positive results would imply that the technique of using biomechanical variables as augmented feedback could be applied in a learning study in such a way to train for the enhancement of performance of cyclists. This approach differs from the traditional one of using novices performing novel tasks. Even though the cyclists were inexperienced, they nonetheless knew how to cycle and thus modifications of the pattern of force application were made to an already existing complex skill.