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Sarah M. Nusser, Nicholas K. Beyler, Gregory J. Welk, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Wayne A. Fuller and Benjamin M.N. King

Background:

Physical activity recall instruments provide an inexpensive method of collecting physical activity patterns on a sample of individuals, but they are subject to systematic and random measurement error. Statistical models can be used to estimate measurement error in activity recalls and provide more accurate estimates of usual activity parameters for a population.

Methods:

We develop a measurement error model for a short-term activity recall that describes the relationship between the recall and an individual’s usual activity over a long period of time. The model includes terms for systematic and random measurement errors. To estimate model parameters, the design should include replicate observations of a concurrent activity recall and an objective monitor measurement on a subsample of respondents.

Results:

We illustrate the approach with preliminary data from the Iowa Physical Activity Measurement Study. In this dataset, recalls tend to overestimate actual activity, and measurement errors greatly increase the variance of recalls relative to the person-to-person variation in usual activity. Statistical adjustments are used to remove bias and extraneous variation in estimating the usual activity distribution.

Conclusions:

Modeling measurement error in recall data can be used to provide more accurate estimates of long-term activity behavior.

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Brittany N. Semenchuk, Shaelyn M. Strachan and Michelle Fortier

( Reis et al., 2015 ) when recalling a hypothetical sport failure than those who scored lower on self-compassion. In addition, women athletes who participated in a self-compassion intervention, compared with women in an attention control group, had lower levels of concern over their mistakes, state self

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Sima Mistry and Jose L. Contreras-Vidal

Recent motor control theories suggest that the brain uses internal models to plan and control accurate movements. An internal model is thought to represent how the biomechanics of the arm interacting with the outside world would respond to a motor command; therefore it can be seen as a predictive model of the reafference that helps the system plan ahead. Moreover, adaptation studies show that humans can learn multiple internal models. It is not clear, however, whether and how contextual cues are used to switch among competing internal models, which are required to compensate for altered environments. To investigate this question, we asked healthy participants to perform center-out pointing movements under normal and distorted visual feedback (0°, 30° counterclockwise, and 60° clockwise rotation of hand-screen cursor relationships) conditions. The results suggest that humans can learn multiple environments simultaneously and can use contextual cues to facilitate adaptation and to recall the appropriate internal model of the visuomotor transformation.

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Janet L. Starkes, Janice M. Deakin, Susan Lindley and Freda Crisp

Two experiments investigated the role of motor performance, and the role of music in the retention and recall of ballet sequences by young expert dancers. Experiment 1 examined 11-year-old expert (N=8) and novice (N=8) dancers, to determine the influence of motor performance in the recall of ballet steps. Subjects were presented with two conditions, either structured choreographed or unstructured sequences. All sequences consisted of eight steps or elements. Subjects recalled both types of sequences motorically by simply performing the steps. Verbal recall was also assessed for structured sequences. Results from analyses of variance indicated main effects of skill, recall condition, and serial position across elements. Experts recalled more than novices, structured sequences were recalled better than nonstructured, and the last sequence element was recalled less. An interaction of Skill X Recall Condition x Serial Position revealed that although experts and novices performed the same on unstructured trials, their performances differed for motor versus verbal structured trials, particularly on the last elements. Experiment 2 examined only expert dancers (i¥=8) on structured sequences and determined whether the presence of music at time of recall aided retention. Correlated t tests revealed that with music, recall was maintained across all eight elements; without music, recall of the last element suffered.

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Gregory J. Harger and John S. Raglin

The ability of athletes to accurately recall precompetition anxiety was tested in members of a collegiate track and field program. In Experiment 1, 34 athletes completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) 1 hour before a competition and again 2 days later. Actual and recalled precompetition anxiety were significantly (p < .01) correlated for the men (r = .96) and women (r = .97) athletes. Accuracy in recalling anxiety was comparable for athletes with above (r = .96) and below (r = .97) average self-ratings of performance. For Experiment 2, the procedure was repeated with 11 other athletes. In this case the STAI items were rearranged on the second form. Again, recalled and actual precompetition anxiety were highly correlated (r = .96, p < .01). It is concluded that athletes can accurately recall precompetition anxiety 2 days following competition. With further validation this method may be used in place of actual precompetition anxiety measurements.

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Dawn K. Wilson, Suzanne Domel Baxter, Caroline Guinn, Russell R. Pate and Kerry McIver

Background:

Qualitative methods were used to better understand how to obtain interviewer-administered recalls of physical activity from children.

Methods:

Subjects were 24 third- and fifth-grade children from 1 school in Columbia, South Carolina. Cognitive interviews targeted different retention intervals (about the same or previous school day). Round 1’s protocols used an open format and had 4 phases (obtain free recall, review free recall, obtain details, review details). Round 2’s protocols used a chronological format and had 3 phases (obtain free recall, obtain details, review details). Trained coders identified discrepancies across interview phases in children’s recalls of physical activity at physical education (PE) and recess. Based on the school’s schedule, children’s reports of PE and recess were classified as omissions (scheduled but unreported) or intrusions (unscheduled but reported).

Results:

Across interview phases, there were numerous discrepancies for Round 1 (regardless of grade, sex, or retention interval) but few discrepancies for Round 2. For Rounds 1 and 2, respectively, 0% and 0% of children omitted PE, while 33% and 0% intruded PE; 44% and 56% of children omitted recess, while 33% and 0% intruded recess.

Conclusions:

Results provide important information for facilitating interviewer-administered recalls of physical activity with elementary-age children.

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Patricia W. Bauer, James M. Pivarnik, Deborah L. Feltz, Nigel Paneth and Christopher J. Womack

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is an important component of a healthy pregnancy and postpartum period. Since prospective PA monitoring throughout gestation is difficult, a valid PA recall tool would be of significant benefit to researchers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of women to recall their physical activity performed during pregnancy and postpartum, 6 years later.

Methods:

Thirty women participated in an historical PA recall study. Pregnancy PA was monitored carefully via assisted physical activity diary (PAD) 6 years before the current investigation. A Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ) was used to assess current and past pregnancy PA. The MAQ was administered for each time period in the order of most distant past to most current. Leisure time energy expenditure values (kcal/kg/day) calculated from the PAD and the MAQ were compared.

Results:

MAQ energy expenditure values showed good positive relationships with PAD measures at 20 weeks gestation (r = .57; P < .01), 32 weeks gestation (r = .85; P < .01), and 12 weeks postpartum (r = .86; P < .01). Correlations found were similar to those from previous PA recall and MAQ validation studies using nonpregnant populations.

Conclusions:

The MAQ is an appropriate tool to assess pregnancy and postpartum PA in women 6 years postpartum.

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Russell R. Pate, Rebecca Ross, Marsha Dowda, Stewart G. Trost and John R. Sirard

The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) self-report instrument in a sample of eighth and ninth grade girls (n = 70, 54.3% white, 37.1% African American). Criterion measures of physical activity were derived using the CSA 7164 accelerometer. Participants wore a CSA monitor for 7 consecutive days and completed the self-report physical activity recall for the last 3 of those days. Self-reported total METs, 30-min blocks of MVPA, and 30-min blocks of VPA were all significantly correlated with analogous CSA variables for 7 days (r = 0.35–0.51; P < 0.01) and 3 days (r = 0.27–0.46; P < 0.05) of monitoring. The results indicate that the 3DPAR is a valid instrument for assessing overall, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity in adolescent girls.

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Lynn Dale Housner

Subjects (N = 29) classified as high or low visual imagers (highs and lows, respectively) viewed and reproduced six filmed examples of motoric stimuli constructed by combining a variety of leg, trunk, arm, and head movements. The motor stimuli represented three levels of complexity (4, 7, and 10 components) and two levels of orientation (model facing subject or facing away). Highs and lows were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (a) one viewing of the stimuli, or (b) two viewings of the stimuli. The experimental design was a 2×2×2× 3 (imagery ability x viewings X orientation x complexity) factorial with repeated measures on the third and fourth factors. Analysis of the data revealed significant main effects for imagery ability, F(l,25) = 6.41, p < .018, where highs reproduced the stimuli with less error than lows, and viewings, F(l,25) = 25.58, p < .001, where two viewings resulted in less recall error than one viewing. Also, the orientation by complexity interaction was found to be significant, F(2,50) = 25.51, p < .001, and indicated that recall accuracy was best when the model was facing away, but only for movement sequences of seven components. The findings suggest that visual imagery may play a role in the recall of modeled motoric stimuli.

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Casey Jordan Mace, Ralph Maddison, Timothy Olds and Ngaire Kerse

Background:

The Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) is a computerized recall instrument that records use of time during 24 hr the previous day and has been developed to address limitations of current self-report physical activity measures for those in advanced age.

Methods:

Test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the adult MARCA were assessed in a sample of 45 advanced-age adults (age 84.9 SD ± 1.62 yr) as a subsample of the Life and Living in Advanced-Age Cohort Study New Zealand (LiLACS NZ). Test–retest methods required participants to recall the previous day’s activity using the MARCA twice within the same day. Convergent validity was assessed against accelerometry.

Results:

Test–retest reliability was high, with ICCs greater than .99 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity level (PAL). Compared with accelerometry, the MARCA demonstrated validity comparable to other self-report instruments with Spearman’s coefficients of .34 and .59 for time spent in nonsedentary physical activity and PAL.

Conclusion:

The MARCA is a valid and reliable self-report tool for physical activity behaviors in advanced-age adults.