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Hyeonho Yu, Pamela H. Kulinna, and Shannon C. Mulhearn

physical education, other opportunities for daily PA opportunities at schools can include recess or lunch recess, before/after school programs, or classroom physical activity. This study focused on promoting PA during recess. Well-planned recess programs are part of Comprehensive School Physical Activity

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Megan Babkes Stellino and Christina Sinclair

Thorough assessment of children’s physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children’s recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living –Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001) instrument. ADL-PP-based RPA data from 3rd-5th grade schoolchildren (N = 444: 51% male, 23.6% overweight/obese) were analyzed to determine the number and specific activity patterns overall as well as according to gender and weightstatus. Patterns of RPA findings showed girls participated in a higher number of activities compared with boys who participated in more sport-related activities. A wide variety in the specific activities in which children engaged was found according to gender and weight-status. Examination of RPA, with the ADL-PP, extends the literature by providing new data relative to the variety and specific types of activities in which children choose to engage during discretionary times, such as recess.

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Ben D. Kern, Paul Malinowski, Kim Hunt, Shawna McIlnay, Brian Powell, and Deb Stephenson

For decades, a reduction in the amount of time allotted for children to participate in physical education (PE) and other physical activity (PA) opportunities during the school day, such as recess, has been an area of concern ( Katzmarzyk et al., 2016 ). Rising rates of obesity and sedentary

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Kahyun Nam, Kylie Wilson, Marissa Schulke, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, and Allison Poulos

, physical education [PE], recess, classroom-based PA, and before and after school). 7 While other frameworks (eg, Whole-of-School Health programs) advocate for the implementation of comprehensive approaches to ensure all students have opportunities for PA participation, 8 CSPAP is an ideal model because of its

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Shu Cheng, Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, and Peter Iserbyt

CSPAP has positively contributed to children’s daily MVPA ( Brusseau & Burns, 2018 ; McMullen et al., 2015 ). Within CSPAP, school recess may provide the greatest opportunity to affect children’s physical activity levels ( Ridgers et al., 2012 ). A European study has reported that children spent

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Ryan D. Burns, Yang Bai, Leslie W. Podlog, Timothy A. Brusseau, and Gregory J. Welk

YAP scores compared to physical education enjoyment during day segments with higher autonomy, such as before school (χ 2  = 7.8, p  < .001), during recess (χ 2  = 15.6, p  < .001), after school (χ 2  = 18.7, p  < .001), and during the evening hours (χ 2  = 15.2, p  < .001). There were no

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Janelle Griffo, Kahyun Nam, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Kulinna, and Allison Ross

programming, before and after school programming, and recess ( Erwin et al., 2013 ). Physical education is deemed to be the cornerstone of comprehensive school PA as it provides students with an excellent opportunity to develop various skills in a structured environment. Physical educators are charged with

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Edward B. Olsen, Emi Tsuda, James D. Wyant, Ranaysia Burrell, Jessica Mukherjee, Ara McKay, Joseph Herrera, and David Labrador

have mastered in a typical school year. Recess in Schools The Whole School, Whole Community, and Whole Child model (WSCC) was developed to improve learning and health by ensuring every child in all schools are healthy, safe, engaged, supported, and challenged ( Centers for Disease Control and

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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Melitta A. McNarry, Kelly A. Mackintosh, and David Berrigan

weekday time in this setting (based on a 7-h school day). There are discrete periods which can be used to promote PA during the predominantly sedentary school day, namely physical education (PE) lessons, active classroom breaks, and recess. The purpose of PE is to develop knowledge and motor skills

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Ken Lodewyk and Lauren McNamara

, Espelage, & Koenig, 2009 ) have each emerged as predictors of academic engagement and success ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010 ). The importance of recess—which most elementary school children experience every day either indoors or outdoors ( McNamara, Vaantaja, Dunseith, & Franklin, 2014