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David M. Buchner and Paul H. Gobster

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the shared interest of the public health and parks and recreation sectors in promoting active visits to parks. At the institutional level, both sectors have missions to promote physical activity and view parks as key components in attaining physical activity goals. While some balancing among park goals may be necessary to avoid overuse and resource degradation, active visits more often complement park sustainability goals by reducing automobile and other motorized use impacts. The public health and parks and recreation sectors have each developed ecologic models to understand the determinants and outcomes of park-related physical activity. Transdisciplinary integration of these modeling efforts can lead to a better understanding of how active visits fit within the context of the overall recreational experience and the full range of benefits that parks provide. We conclude by identifying strategies for improving collaboration between the public health and parks and recreation sectors.

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Wendell C. Taylor, Myron F. Floyd, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover and Joseph Brooks

Background:

Despite the importance of physical activity (PA) for good health, not all populations have equal access to PA facilities and resources. This disparity is an environmental justice (EJ) issue because of the negative impact on the health of low-income and racial/ethnic minorities.

Methods:

This paper reviews the first wave of the EJ movement, presents the second wave of the EJ movement, discusses the implications of adopting principles from the EJ movement to focus on research in parks and recreation services (PRS), and recommends future research directions.

Results:

Studies on EJ have documented the disproportionate burden of environmental challenges experienced by low-income and racial/ethnic minorities. With regard to PA, these communities face inadequate access to, quality of, financing for, and public involvement in recreation opportunities.

Conclusions:

EJ is a useful framework to facilitate collaborative research between public health and PRS to study racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in PA.

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Tshepang Tshube and Stephanie J. Hanrahan

, and delivering sport and recreation opportunities at all levels 2. Identify strategies for development of sport and recreation within context of Botswana’s cultural and socio economic set up 3. Outline structures of a sport and recreation system that will promote access and participation in sport by

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Andrew F. Clark, Joannah Campbell, Patricia Tucker, Piotr Wilk and Jason A. Gilliland

behaviors. Children with fathers who have lower levels of education (ie, high school diploma or less) are also more likely to use the G5AP at the BGCL. This finding may be a result of their organization’s mission of promoting inclusivity by offering affordable and supportive recreation opportunities to all

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Kavita A. Gavand, Kelli L. Cain, Terry L. Conway, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Jacqueline Kerr, Karen Glanz and James F. Sallis

availability scores. This is a substantial effect size and suggests that interventions providing diverse recreation opportunities could have a large impact on adolescent PA, helping meet a third of daily recommendations. Studies to evaluate natural experiments, including creating more recreation facilities

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Estela Farías-Torbidoni and Demir Barić

to a recreation opportunity spectrum classification proposed by Brown et al. 28 belong to the semiprimitive-motorized category. However, in terms of the offer of PA areas (ie, paths and winter activities areas) and supporting areas (ie, parking and picnics areas), the different entrances considered

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Vassilios Ziakas and Sylvia Trendafilova

Department is to improve recreation opportunities for all residents in Panorama. The Panorama Recreation Department works hard to maintain and improve the City’s existing park lands, recreational facilities, and trail facilities. Through planning, development, maintenance, and facilities management projects

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Kirsten Ward, Anne Pousette and Chelsea A. Pelletier

providing many challenges can also provide ample outdoor recreation opportunities with common activities including snowshoeing or skiing. Furthermore, northern and rural communities in BC feature many outdoor activities in summer conditions, such as hiking and kayaking. Because aging leads to decreased

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Patti Millar and Alison Doherty

capacity. CSOs provide sport and physical recreation opportunities at the community level ( Cuskelly, 2004 ). They are characterized by their local focus, modest budgets, almost exclusive reliance on volunteers, and relatively informal structures ( Doherty, Misener, & Cuskelly, 2014 ). The study of CSO

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Jason Laurendeau

watershed and to provide resource development, tourism, and recreation opportunities. • Banff-Cochrane [Member of the Legislative Assembly] Clarence Copithorne, a rancher in the Jumpingpound area, recognized the growing pressure on the eastern slopes from Calgarians wishing to escape the city in the late