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John Librett, Karla Henderson, Geoffrey Godbey, and James R. Morrow Jr.

The purpose of parks and recreation as well as public health is to seek the highest possible quality of life for individuals and communities. Unfortunately, little discourse has occurred between the parks and recreation and public health professions. This missed opportunity has resulted in an incomplete understanding of the spectrum of issues shared by the fields, a slow transdisciplinary learning curve, and a dearth of knowledge-based linkages between science and practice. The goal of the 2006 Cooper Institute Conference on Parks, Recreation, and Public Health: Collaborative Frameworks for Promoting Physical Activity was to highlight opportunities and advance cooperation between parks, recreation, and public health researchers and practitioners that result in collaborations that influence public health decisions at the macro (agency) and micro (individual) levels. This article introduces the discussion on scientific and practice issues in parks, recreation, and public health. By establishing a baseline of frameworks for strengthening collaboration we hope to improve the health and quality of life through parks and recreation-based physical activity.

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Kassi A. Boyd and Donna L. Goodwin

recreation professionals. Note 1. An inquiry paradigm defines what falls within and without of legitimate inquiry. The beliefs that define paradigms are in the appearance of ontology which asks what is the form or the nature of reality or what can be known, epistemology or what is the nature of the

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Kavita A. Gavand, Kelli L. Cain, Terry L. Conway, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Jacqueline Kerr, Karen Glanz, and James F. Sallis

study. 5 A review showed that home neighborhood characteristics related to walkability, traffic speed/volume, access/proximity to recreation facilities, land use mix, and residential density were consistent environmental correlates of PA of children and/or adolescents. 6 Furthermore, greater access to

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Richard R. Suminski, Gregory M. Dominick, Philip Saponaro, Elizabeth M. Orsega-Smith, Eric Plautz, and Matthew Saponaro

including PA. The System for Observing Play and Active Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) is the most widely used tool for assessing park use ( Evenson, Jones, Holliday, Cohen & McKenzie, 2016 ; McKenzie, 2016 ). It uses momentary time sampling in which trained observers scan pre-defined, “target” areas of

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Deborah Salvo, Rodrigo S. Reis, Adriano A.F. Hino, Pedro C. Hallal, and Michael Pratt

Background:

There is little understanding about which sets of environmental features could simultaneously predict intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among Brazilians. The objectives were to identify the environmental correlates for intensity-specific LTPA, and to build the best-fit linear models to predict intensity-specific LTPA among adults of Curitiba, Brazil.

Methods:

Cross sectional study in Curitiba, Brazil (2009, n = 1461). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Assessment Scale were used. Ninety-two perceived environment variables were categorized in 10 domains. LTPA was classified as walking for leisure (LWLK), moderate-intensity leisure-time PA (MLPA), vigorous-intensity leisure-time PA (VLPA), and moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time PA (MVLPA). Best fitting linear predictive models were built.

Results:

Forty environmental variables were correlated to at least 1 LTPA outcome. The variability explained by the 4 best-fit models ranged from 17% (MLPA) to 46% (MVLPA). All models contained recreation areas and aesthetics variables; none included residential density predictors. At least 1 neighborhood satisfaction variable was present in each of the intensity-specific models, but not for overall MVLPA.

Conclusions:

This study demonstrates the simultaneous effect of sets of perceived environmental features on intensity-specific LTPA among Brazilian adults. The differences found compared with high-income countries suggest caution in generalizing results across settings.

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Ka Man Leung and Pak-Kwong Chung

satisfaction with public transport are positively related to walking for transportation ( Cerin et al., 2017 ). The number of shops is positively related to walking for recreation, whereas feeling unsafe is negatively related ( Van Cauwenberg, Clarys, et al., 2012 ). Clearly, different physical

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Karla A. Henderson and M. Deborah Bialeschki

The purpose of this research was to explore the meanings of women’s involvement in physical recreation. Although much has been written about girls’ and women’s involvement in competitive athletics, less is known about the everyday physical involvement of women who are committed to fitness activities, recreational sports, and/or outdoor activities. Data from indepth interviews were collected from 29 participants in physical activity. A process of “constant comparison” was used to develop conclusions about the social psychological meanings of physical recreation. Physical recreation was analyzed in relation to three themes: the setting and structures associated with physical activity, the worth of physical activity, and the means for negotiating opportunities for participation. The gendered meanings associated with physical recreation provided further social psychological and sociological understandings of the recreation choices and multilayered reality of women’s lives.

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Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Nicholas Ngomi, Samuel Oti, Thaddaeus Egondi, and Catherine Kyobutungi

Background:

Insufficient physical activity and sedentary behavior are key risk factors for the emergence of noncommunicable diseases in the sub-Saharan African setting. Given the limited evidence base, research is required to understand the trends.

Objectives:

This study describes the patterns of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a large sample of urban slum residents in Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods:

We used data collected from 5190 study participants as part of cardiovascular disease risk assessment. Data were collected about work-, transport-, and recreation-related physical activity as well as sitting and sleeping time. Using time spent on each type of physical activity and respective metabolic equivalents (METs), patterns of physical activity and associated factors were evaluated using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and logistic regression.

Results:

Nearly 50% of the study population was involved in work-related physical activities, whereas only 6.3% was involved in recreation-related physical activities. Involvement in physical activities decreased with age, and 17.4% had <600 MET-minutes per week. Higher sitting time was associated with insufficient physical activity. There were substantial gender differences in the time spent for physical activity.

Conclusions:

Given the positive relationship between insufficient physical activity and sedentary behavior, complementary interventions that improve physical activity and at the same time reduce sitting time are needed.

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Carrie M. Geremia, Kelli L. Cain, Terry L. Conway, James F. Sallis, and Brian E. Saelens

There is considerable interest in the built environment factors that facilitate engagement in positive health behaviors such as physical activity (PA), with a growing recognition of the potential importance of parks and other public recreation spaces to encourage PA. 1 – 3 Substantial amounts of

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Heather R. Bowles, Dafna Merom, Tien Chey, Ben J. Smith, and Adrian Bauman

Background:

The aim of this study was to examine the associations between characteristics of recreational activity and total physical activity (PA).

Methods:

Recreational activity type and number were assessed for 3,385 adult respondents to the population-based Exercise Recreation and Sport Survey and categorized as “no recreational activity,” “walking only,” “sport only,” or “combined walking and sport.” Total PA was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and categorized as “low,” “moderate,” or “high.”

Results:

Odds of high total PA were 1.7 times greater among walking-only participants, 2.9 times greater among sport-only participants, and 3.3 times greater among participants in combined walking and sport compared to no recreational activity participants. Greater number of recreational activities related to increased odds of high total PA. Similar associations were observed between recreational activity and moderate total PA.

Conclusion:

Participants in more than one type of recreational activity were less likely to have a low-active lifestyle.