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Lisa K. Sharp, Marian L. Fitzgibbon, and Linda Schiffer

Background:

Despite the increased health risks for obese Black women, relatively little research has explored physical activity and nutrition interventions for these women. This article describes the recruitment strategies used in a program designed specifically for obese Black women.

Methods:

Recruitment of Black women age 30 to 65 years with body mass indices between 30 kg/m2 and 50 kg/m2 was completed using in-person recruitment and flyers within 2 miles of the intervention site along with mass e-mails within the sponsoring university system. Medical clearance from a physician was an eligibility requirement because of Institutional Review Board safety concerns.

Results:

Of the 690 women who were screened, 213 (31%) were eligible and randomized. The most common reason for exclusion was failure to return a medical clearance form (n = 167, 39% of ineligible). Different rates of efficiency were noted across recruitment approaches.

Conclusions:

Black women were successfully recruited using in-person community recruitment, e-mail, and community flyers within close proximity to the intervention site. Careful consideration should be given to the advantages and disadvantages of various recruitment strategies that might not generalize across studies.

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Brad Donohue, Ashley Dowd, Corey Philips, Christopher P. Plant, Travis Loughran, and Yulia Gavrilova

Recruitment of participants into treatment outcome studies is an important and often challenging aspect of human research. Yet, there have been very few controlled trials that have examined methods of recruiting participants into clinical trials, particularly in populations that may be reluctant to pursue mental health intervention, such as athletes. In this study, 79 NCAA Division I, Club, and Intramural student-athletes volunteered to participate in a study to determine their interest in participating in one of two goal-oriented programs representing two arms in a clinical trial. These programs were aimed at reducing substance abuse and sexually transmitted infections, and improving mental health, relationships, and sport performance. The participants were randomly assigned to Standard Recruitment (SR) or Recruitment Engagement (RE). RE included a review of the aforementioned outcome study and implementation of strategies that were developed to motivate participants to engage in treatment. The SR condition involved a review of the aforementioned treatment outcome study only. After the recruitment interventions were implemented, participants were queried to report any negative consequences that may have occurred from their use of illicit drugs or alcohol. Participants who reported negative consequences were invited to participate in baseline assessment of the aforementioned outcome study. Results indicated that 11 (25.0%) of the participants in the RE condition provided their consent to participate, 9 (20.5%) of whom subsequently completed baseline assessment; only 2 (5.7%) of the SR participants provided their study consent and subsequently participated in baseline assessment for the clinical trial (p < .05). After the respective recruitment intervention was implemented, participants were administered psychometrically validated instruments to assess their overall psychiatric functioning and the extent to which their sport performance was negatively impacted by dysfunctional thoughts and stress. Participants in RE were more likely to report greater dysfunctional thoughts and stress interfering with their sport performance (and, to a lesser extent, greater psychiatric problems) than SR participants, suggesting RE may influence greater disclosure of problem behavior than SR, permitting the interviewers opportunities to empathize with the participants’ concerns. Results are discussed in light of their implications to treatment outcome research and clinical and counseling practice involving student-athletes.

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Thomas J. Templin, Kim C. Graber, and K. Andrew R. Richards

profession in decades. In this final monograph chapter, the authors consider the current state of recruitment and retention in PETE programs in light of the results reported in the preceding chapters, and in relation to occupational socialization theory. Lessons Learned About Recruiting and Retaining PETE

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Suzan F. Ayers and Amelia Mays Woods

study approach across three institutions of higher education ( Bulger, Braga, DiGiacinto, & Jones, 2016 ). Based on this examination, Bulger et al. proffered suggestions to effectively recruit and retain highly qualified physical education teacher education (PETE) candidates around the themes of, “play

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Terry L. Rizzo, Penny McCullagh, and Donna Pastore

kinesiology is administratively located. One of these challenges is the need for high-quality faculty members who can assimilate to the culture of kinesiology and meet the high demands of faculty responsibilities. In addition to recruiting high-quality faculty members, departments must retain the expert

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Ben D. Kern, K. Andrew R. Richards, Suzan F. Ayers, and Chad M. Killian

Declining student enrollments among 4-year institutions in the United States have prompted college and university leaders to prioritize recruiting efforts and, in some cases, enlist the help of faculty members in this process ( Brint, Yoshikawa, Rotondi, Viggiano, & Maldonado, 2016 ; Rahman

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B. Andrew Krause., J. Ty Hopkins, Christopher D. Ingersoll, Mitchell L. Cordova, and Jeffrey E. Edwards

Objective:

Correlate skin temperature and motoneuron-pool recruitment during cooling and rewarming.

Design:

Within-subjects, correlational analysis. H reflex was correlated to ankle-skin temperature over time using a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and a coefficient of determination (R2).

Subjects:

Ten healthy, physically active college students.

Measurements:

Soleus H reflex and ankle-skin interface temperature were measured during ice application and rewarming. Electrical stimulation was delivered to produce 75% of each subject's maximum H reflex.

Results:

Ankle cooling (r = −.95, P < .05) exhibited a strong inverse relationship with soleus H reflex. A positive correlation was observed between rewarming (r = .74, P < .05) and soleus H reflex.

Conclusions:

Temperature accounts for nearly 90% (R2 = .90) of the variability in the soleus H reflex during cooling and 55% (R2 = .55) during rewarming, suggesting that more motoneurons are recruited as temperature decreases. These interactions appear to involve both local and central nervous system functions.

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Eiji Yamada, Takashi Kusaka, Satoshi Tanaka, Satoshi Mori, Hiromichi Norimatsu, and Susumu Itoh

Objective:

To investigate changes in motor-unit activity and muscle oxygenation (MO) during isometric contraction with and without vascular occlusion using surface electromyography (EMG) and near-infrared spectroscopy.

Design and Setting:

MO and EMG of the right vastus medialis muscle were measured during isometric contraction at 30%, 50%, and 70% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), with and without vascular occlusion.

Participants:

6 healthy men.

Results:

Integrated EMG (IEMG) and mean power frequency were significantly higher with vascular occlusion at 30% and 50% MVC. MO reduction at each load was significantly lower with vascular occlusion. A significant positive correlation was found between IEMG and changes in MO level under both conditions.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that oxygen supply to active muscles was impaired by occlusion and that type II fibers were then preferentially recruited, which suggests that hypertrophy occurs in low-intensity exercise in patients with limitations resulting from advanced age, pain, or postsurgery limitation.

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K. Andrew R. Richards and Thomas J. Templin

agree alongside Ward (2018) in noting that declining enrollment is a complex, nuanced issue that needs to be addressed through scholarly inquiry. While several theoretical frameworks seem appropriate for studying recruitment and retention (e.g.,  Guarino, Santibañez, & Daley, 2006 ), one helpful

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Jonathon R. Edwards and Marvin Washington

National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) Division I schools compete with the Canadian Hockey League for top Canadian youth minor hockey players (ages 14–18). To address the challenges of adhering to NCAA’s eligibility and recruitment regulations, the NCAA commissioners created College Hockey Inc. (CHI). One challenge facing new institutions such as CHI is establishing legitimacy as a means of penetrating a crowded organizational field. In this paper we examine what forces, actions, and events contributed to the creation of CHI and what forces, actions, or events contribute to maintaining CHI’s relevance in their attempt to leverage NCAA Division I hockey with Canadian players and parents. Educational Opportunities, Student Life Experiences, Player Development, and Professional Hockey Opportunities were found to be discursive strategies used by CHI to gain pragmatic legitimacy and maintain the institution. Exploration of these strategies makes a number of practical and theoretical contributions to the field of sport management.